"...SPENCE is an architect of great renown,
Whose noble works adorn our ancient town..."
Or so it appeared, in the somewhat satirical report published in BELL's Life in Sydney & Sporting Chronicle, of the election of a new Mayor for Sydney in December 1862, in which the outgoing Mayor's speech had been reconstructed by the anonymous reporter into an epic ode.
Thomas SPENCE was not an Architect as we know them today, but was instead a Carpenter/Joiner turned building contractor, perhaps best known for his having won the contract in 1856 to erect the cast-iron store-house, prefabricated in Scotland, in the short four weeks he had left before the opening of the first bi-cameral Parliament in the Australian Colonies - and which building is still in use as the Legislative Council Chamber of the N.S.W. Parliament, in Macquarie St, Sydney, although since Thomas built it, the roof was reconstructed and the front wall has been moved closer to Macquarie St in order to enlarge its capacity.
Thomas SPENCE appears to have been a little ahead of his political times - in another mildly satirical report, in the same newspaper only 11 months earlier, he was credited as having made a speech, at the farewell banquet in honour of Benjamin JAMES, in which he advocated that "a House was nothing without women" - the similarly unidentified reporter went on to draw the obvious allusion to the House in Macquarie Street which was without women Members, and said of Alderman SPENCE:
"Really, the men of out time are becoming fearfully enlightened."
Thomas SPENCE was also a widow, and after he was elected Mayor in Dec 1862, his late wife Esther was represented, at those Civic occasions which required a Mayoress, by their elder surviving daughter Elizabeth SPENCE, then a young woman 25 years of age, and who would, 3 years hence, become the wife of a pioneering Presbyterian Minister, and would go with him to live in the Manse of the small N.S.W. country town of Carcoar - having earned the stated reputation for being the only Presbyterian Minister's wife who could claim to have been at one time of her "career" the Mayoress of a major Australian city.
That Minister was Rev James ADAM, M.A., and his story can be found in an earlier blog on this blog-site.
A BRIEF SOJOURN IN MANCHESTER.
Thomas SPENCE & his wife Esther HYDE had arrived in Sydney on 12 Feb 1842 on the ship Champion, from Liverpool, as bounty emigrants, together with their 5 year-old daughter Elizabeth. They had lost a son on day 61 of the voyage, somewhere off the coast of Africa, in the heat of a tropical summer; he only survived his birth by 5 hours; and he joined up to 4 other children who had not survived their infancy in the town of Manchester, where Thomas & Esther had married, in St John's Parish Church, on 28 Aug 1834. Esther did it hard - she lost two of 3 more children born in Sydney, and died in 1858, just as Thomas was launching his Civic career as Alderman for Fitzroy Ward, covering Woolloomooloo, on the Sydney Municipal Council.
Earlier again, in the early 1830's, Thomas had arrived in Manchester from Fifeshire in Scotland as a joiner & carpenter, probably having learned his trade from his father in Auchtertool; and there joined his younger brother Robert SPENCE, also a carpenter, who also married there, to Alice GRISDALE, & also emigrated to Sydney, about 3 months before Thomas & Esther, settling in Redfern.
Thomas resided at Owen St, Hulme, as a Joiner (1836, 1839) & Book-keeper (1838), & more precisely at 28 Owen Street (Feb 1841); his brother Robert, who witnessed Thomas & Esther's 1834 marriage, resided at Salford.
The SPENCE family was enumerated at 77 Devonshire Street, Manchester, 1841 Census - Thomas, aged 38, a Joiner, with Ester, aged 30+ & Elizabeth, aged 5.
SPENCE FAMILY ORIGINS IN DYSART, FIFESHIRE.
They were the sons of Alexander SPENCE (1775-1860), a Clock & Watchmaker & Wright, of Dysart, Dunfermline & Auchtertool, all in Fifeshire, by his wife Jean MACKAY. Their first known child Thomas was born in Dunfermline in 1802, followed by Robert in 1804; two younger sons were born in Auchtertool, and Henry & Alexander both also joined their brothers in Australia, emigrating in the mid 1850's, with wives & children - Henry going to Ballarat in Victoria, & Alexander to Botany in Sydney's south.
Their only two daughters, Margaret & Isobel, remained in Fife, where they were married, with children.
The SPENCE family had a long tradition in the Royal Burgh of Dysart, as Master Clockmakers & before them as Maltsters. Thomas's grandfather Thomas SPENCE, & his great-grandfather Robert SPENCE, were both Clockmakers of Dysart, & their long-case clocks are still listed in on-line sale catalogues, and for asking prices in excess of £8,000 sterling.
But, we should start with Thomas's great-great grandfather:
Thomas SPENCE was baptised at St Serf's Parish Church, Dysart, on 12 Feb 1683, a son of David SPENCE, Maltster, & his spouse Janet SMALL; Thomas was himself a Burger & Maltster, and was several times Baillie of Dysart; he died in Dysart on 25 Oct 1758, & was buried under his own stone in the Churchyard of St Serf's, Dysart; he married at St Serf's, on 24 Aug 1711, Grizell HENDERSON (daughter of Robert HENDERSON, Bailie of Dysart, by Elizabeth LAW); she was buried with her husband, 25 Dec 1770; they had issue:
1. Robert SPENCE, bt Dysart, 9 Oct 1712. See [A] below.
2. David SPENCE, bt Dysart, 8 Aug 1714; Salt Master in Dysart; bur St Serf's Churchyard, 15 Dec 1774; marr Helen REDDIE; she was buried St Serf's, 12 Jun 1766; issue.
3. Janet SPENCE, bt Dysart, 8 Jul 1716; named in her father's deed, 1763; unmarried.
4. Elizabeth SPENCE, bt Dysart, 26 Feb 1718; named in her father's deed, 1763; married at Dysart, 14 Nov 1752, John REDDIE, a Captain in the service of the Hon East Indies Company, with issue including - Grizel REDDIE, the wife of James BLACK, Commander, R.N.
5. Thomas SPENCE, bt Dysart, 24 Jan 1720; Maltsman & Tidewaiter; married at Dysart, 26 Aug 1757, Helen ANDERSON, with issue including - Andrew SPENCE (1761 - 1805), trained as a Dentist with his cousin, & went to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where he married Mary MAUGHAN & had issue.
6. James SPENCE, bt Dysart, 22 Feb 1722; Operator to the Teeth of King George III; of Soho, London; died in London, 10 Jan 1783, & was buried at St Serf's, Dysart; by his wife Martha (her will dated Mar 1784, proved Feb 1789), he had issue - Thomas Richard SPENCE (b ca 1745), also a Royal Dentist, with issue by his wife Frances; George SPENCE (1750-1815), another Royal Dentist, who marr Ann PITTS, with issue; & Martha SPENCE, b 1756, the wife of Capt George WHITLEY, with issue.
[A] Robert SPENCE was baptised at Dysart, 9 Oct 1712, the eldest son & heir; a Wright, Watch & Clock Maker in Dysart; he was buried at St Serf's, 6 Oct 1799; he married at Dysart, 3 Feb 1738, Margaret PAGE (daughter of Alexander PAGE of Abbotshall & Isabel PHILP); they had issue:
1. Thomas SPENCE, baptised Dysart, 9 Jun 1740. See [B] below.
2. Grizel SPENCE, bt Dysart, 12 Feb 1742; possibly the wife of William McCULLOUGH, with issue.
3. Isobel SPENCE, bt Dysart, 27 Nov 1743; probably buried St Serf's, Dysart, 30 Jul 1810; unmarried.
4. Alexander SPENCE, bt Dysart, 3 Dec 1745; probably buried St Serf's, 22 Aug 1746; an infant.
5. Elizabeth SPENCE, bt Dysart, 25 Sep 1747; probably buried St Serf's, 19 Dec 1752; a child.
6. Margaret SPENCE, bt Dysart, 30 Jun 1749; probably buied St Serf's, 20 Feb 1750; an infant.
7. Robert SPENCE, bt Dysart, 14 Jun 1750.
8. Margaret SPENCE (2), bt Dysart, 23 Jun 1752; probably buried St Serf's, 14 Sep 1824; unmarried.
9. Martha SPENCE, bt Dysart, 15 Jan 1757; probably the wife of George COMRIE, with issue.
[B] Thomas SPENCE was baptised at St Serf's, Dysart, 9 Jan 1740, the 2nd child & eldest son; Clockmaker in Dysart; his death details have not yet located, but he was living in 1795, & probably died very soon after; he married 1stly, at Dysart, ca 1761, Isabella DUNCAN; she was buried at St Serf's, 8 Mar 1770, having had issue:
1. Mary SPENCE, baptised at Dysart, 30 May 1762; probably buried St Serf's, 29 Sep 1762; an infant.
2. Robert SPENCE, bt Dysart, 25 Sep 1763.
3. James SPENCE, bt Dysart, 12 May 1765; probably buried St Serf's, 28 Jun 1768; a child.
4. Margaret SPENCE, bt Dysart, 26 Oct 1766; possibly buried St Serf's, 14 Sep 1824; if so, unmarried.
5. William SPENCE, bt Dysart, 9 Jan 1769; probably buried St Serf's, 17 Jun 1771; a child.
Thomas married 2ndly, again at St Serf's, Dysart, his cousin Amelia (Emily) ORROCK (daughter of Robert ORROCK of Auchtertool by Isabel PAGE, a sister of Mrs Margaret SPENCE alias PAGE); Emily was buried at St Serf's, 27 Jul 1806, having had issue:
6. Alexander SPENCE, bt Dysart, 1 Sep 1775. See [C] below.
7. James SPENCE (2), bt Dysart, 8 Dec 1776; possibly married Mary MURRAY?
8. Isabel SPENCE, bt Dysart, 14 Jun 1779; possibly bur St Serf's, 30 Jul 1810; if so, unmarried.
9. John SPENCE, bt Dysart, 4 Nov 1781; possibly married Grizel MEARNS?
10. Orrock SPENCE, bt Dysart, 4 Sep 1763; married at Kirkcaldy, Jun 1818, Catherine HILL, with issue.
[C] Alexander SPENCE was born at Dysart, 13 Aug 1775, eldest son of the 2nd marriage; Wright & Watchmaker in Dunfermline & Auchtertool; he died at Auchtertool, 2 Jun 1860; details of his marriage to Jean MACKAY have not yet been found; she was buried in Auchtertool Churchyard, 26 Jul 1846; they had issue:
1. Thomas SPENCE, born at Dunfermline, 6 Oct 1802, & baptised at the Abbey Church, 24 Oct.
2. Robert SPENCE, born Dunfermline, 31 Jul 1804; went to Manchester; Carpenter in Salford; married at Eccles, 1838, Alice GRISDALE; they emigrated to N.S.W. on the ship "Ayrshire" departing Liverpool, Jul 1841, with sons Alexander SPENCE (born 1838) & Joseph SPENCE (born 1840; died on the voyage out); they settled in Redfern, south of Sydney, where they had further issue.
3. Alexander SPENCE, born at Dunfermline, 17 Jan 1809; apparently died young.
4. Henry SPENCE, born at Auchtertool, 22 Dec 1812; Miner; married at Inverkeithing, 4 May 1833, Jane BLACK; they emigrated to Victoria on the ship "Charles Napier" leaving Liverpool, Dec 1854, with children James SPENCE (born 1837), Isabella SPENCE (born 1840) & Margaret SPENCE (born 1843); they settled in Bendigo, where they had further issue.
5. Alexander SPENCE (2), born at Auchtertool, 1 Mar 1817; married at Inverkeithing, 28 Sep 1838, Elizabeth DEMPSTER; they emigrated to N.S.W. on the ship "David McIvor" departing Liverpool, Aug 1854, with children Elizabeth Moodie SPENCE (born 1839), Alexander SPENCE (born 1841), ThomasSPENCE (born 1845), William SPENCE (born 1848) & Robert (b 1853, & died on the voyage out).
5. Isabel SPENCE, born at Auchtertool, 21 Nov 1821; married at Auhtertool, 10 Nov 1841, William PATERSON of Auchtertool, with issue.
6. Margaret SPENCE, born at Auchtertool, 10 Jun 1824; married at Auchtertool, 30 Jan 1852, Alexander KINNELL, with issue.
THOMAS SPENCE SETTLES IN SYDNEY.
Thomas SPENCE first resided in Nicholson Street, Balmain, where he was recorded in the 1844 Sydney Directory. He made several property purchases in that vicinity, including 11 perches of land in Johnston Street, Balmain , an "...extension of Nicholson Street," from Elizabeth BURNICLE, in 1850, & which remained in his possession until the 1870's.
It is believed that on that land, in about 1844, and with the permission of her late husband William BURNICLE (he died Feb 1846), Thomas had previously built a small stone cottage, later known as Woodbine Cottage, on the south-eastern corner of Nicholson street and Smith's Lane (later School Street). See William BURNICLE's entry in the 2nd part of Peter REYNOLDS's article published in The Leichhardt Historical Journal, No 12, 1983, at page 14. The cottage has evidently not survived; but it does appear in John DEGOTARDI's 1865 photograph, "Panoramic View of Simmons Point, Balmain East, from Goat Island, &c", on the www.collection.hht.au web-site; which photo was reproduced in REYNOLDS's article, identifying the exact location.
But Thomas did not stay long in Balmain, & by 1849, he had already taken occupancy of a one-roomed workshop on William Street, Woolloomooloo.
In Aug 1851, he purchased a brick & Shingle workshop just around the corner, in Palmer Street, and in May 1852, he purchased a brick & shingle house in William Street.
His acceptance into the congregation of the Free Presbyterian Church in Pitt St in Nov 1852 gives a clear indication of the removal of his residence from Balmain to Woolloomooloo by that time.
Sydney Directory listings record him as a Builder, at William St, 1851; at 79 William St, 1855; & at 110 Palmer St, 1858; Miller & Timber Yard, 102-104 Palmer St, 1861; and from 1863 in Palmer Street - No 108 in 1863 - 1865; & No 126 in 1867-1876.
It is not possible, from this distance in time, to identify exactly where these earlier structures stood, but it is apparent from Rating Assessments in later years that they probably part of the package of 4 properties that later came into the possession of his only surviving daughter Mrs Elizabeth ADAM, and after, of her only daughter Mrs Margaret Paton PIGOTT (my grandmother).
In 1861, Thomas was recorded as the owner of the following properties that were rated in Fitzroy Ward:
1. 42 William St - House & Shop; Brick & Shingle; 2 floors & 6 rooms; annual value £170; occupied by James SADLER.
2. 44 William St - all ditto; occupied by Henry WALLS.
3. 102-106 Palmer St - Wood & Iron sheds; value £20; occupied by Thomas SPENCE.
4. 108 Palmer St - House; Brick & Slate; 3 floors; value £100; occupied by Thomas SPENCE.
There were two other properties listed, at 10 & 12 Spence's Lane, where two cottages of brick & shingle, valued at 28 & £26, were occupied by Margaret PARKER & Edward EVERETT resp; these were probably shortly after demolished & replaced by a house similar to the one at 108 Palmer Street.
These street numberings were only temporary, & by 1867, the now pair of terraced houses which Thomas owned on Palmer St were numbered 126 (probably the former 108 - Thomas continued to reside in this one until his death) & 128 (the southern house, standing on the north side of Spence Lane, which ran from Palmer St to Bourke St, just north of William St, & which disappeared, around the year 2000, under the new circular south-bound on-ramp into the airport tunnel).
When my grandmother died in 1960, these four properties were sold to satisfy the conditions of her will (they were of unequal value, and so could not be divided equally without realising their cash value). At that time, they comprised the pair of adjoining 3 storey terraced houses standing on the north-western corner of Palmer Street & Spence Lane (both demolished in the 1980's to make way for the Bourke St "diversion" where it passed under William Street); and the two shops on the north side of William Street, between Crown & Palmer Streets, and were demolished to make way for the Boulevarde Hotel (one of the shops lay under the present driveway entrance to the hotel).
THOMAS SPENCE SERVES HIS PARLIAMENT.
Thomas spent some time in & around the Parliamentary precinct on the east side of Macquarie Street, as a sort of period contractor for minor works; and as the major contractor for erection of the new 2nd chamber of the Legislature itself.
Politics was not new to Thomas SPENCE. During his time in Manchester, not only had the Reform Bill of 1837 enabled Mancunians to once again send Representatives to sit in the House of Commons, a right they were deprived of at the Restoration as punishment for their support of Oliver CROMWELL in the Civil Wars, but they were also able to establish a Municipal Corporation for the Town, despite having to outlay almost £800,000 to "compensate" the MOSELEY family for their surrendering of the Manorial Rights.
And in addition to all of this, the Collegiate Church - where his wife Esther HYDE was baptised in 1804, & where her parents (George HYDE, a Cloth Dyer, and Margaret MOTTRAM) were married in 1794 - was finally elevated to the rank of Cathedral.
But I don't know whether Thomas was new to Politics.
In Jul 1848, his name was included on a list of members of a Balmain committee established for the election of Charles COWPER & H. Gilbert SMITH to the Legislative Council as Members for the County of Cumberland [Sydney Morning Herald, 31 Jul 1848], but in particular for advancing the electoral cause of Mr SMITH.
It seems likely that his association with the world of COWPER, later to lead a number of Governments of an increasingly Liberal persuasion, inevitably led to his own involvement in Municipal politics another 9 years hence; it may also have "facilitated" his involvement with both minor and major new works in the N.S.W. Parliamentary precinct, which he commenced in Feb 1850.
His "tasks" are listed in Public Works Archives, and are summarised below:
26 Feb 1850 - tendered for alterations to the Committee Room of the Council Chamber, for £57.
15 May 1850 - instructed to furnish a lock for a desk and a man to regulate the bells.
7 Jun 1850 - instructed to provide two additional keys for the dressing room at the Head of the Stairs, one for the Sergeant-at-Arms, the other for the Assistant Clerk.
6 Oct 1852 - ordered to erect shelves in the Speaker's Room, for a large number of books weekly expected to arrive from England.
2 Feb 1853 - instructed to repair or replace the shelves that he had provided for the Almanacs & Lists, which had warped so badly as to be unfit for purpose.
7 Jul 1853 - ordered to replace a ladder, supplied by the Gas Company for lighting the Lamps, and broken by one of Thomas's men, resulting in the lights having remained unlit for two weeks.
12 Jul 1854 - requested to repair sash lines on one of the Chamber windows.
Up to this time, Thomas had taken his instructions from Edmund BLACKETT, the Colonial Architect who had succeeded Mortimer LEWIS in 1849, & who had in turn been instructed by William McPHERSON, Clerk of the Council. BLACKETT resigned in 1854 to take up a position offered by the Senate of Sydney University to erect their first buildings, & was replaced by William WEAVER, who had been BLACKETT's Senior Foreman of Works.
WEAVER's tenure was short-lived, and he "resigned" under the Governor's displeasure over his failure to make timely provision for a meeting chamber required to accommodate the new Legislative Assembly under responsible bi-cameral government.
The process is succinctly described by the Clerk of the Parliaments, W.K. CHARLETON, in his address, in July 1944, to visiting members of the Royal Australian Historical Society, & published in the R.A.H.S. Journal, Vol.XXX, p.249 et seq, as follows:
"...WEAVER was asked to prepare an estimate for a new Council Chamber and offices. A few days later he attended before a committee of the House and stated that he had approached Mrs BURDEKIN with a view to securing a lease of her residence opposite for a Council Chamber.
"These negotiations apparently fell through, and on 23 February 1856, the Governor (Sir William DENNISON) & the Executive Council approved the purchase of an iron building then in Melbourne for £1,760 (delivered in Sydney Harbour) or £1,835 if delivered (on land, no more than, i.e.) within 1 mile from a public wharf.
"It is said the building was intended for church purposes in Bendigo, but at the time of the gold rush, portion of the material was hastily put up in Melbourne to cope with the extraordinary demand for accommodation. The whole of the material was brought from Melbourne on the ship "Callender," which left there on 13 March 1856.
"On 17 April 1856, the Governor approved the tender of Mr Thomas SPENCE to erect the building, together with adjacent rooms and offices, and provide internal fittings for the Chamber, for the sum of £4,475. The building was erected at the southern end of the old Principal Surgeon's residence."
The offer of the building had been made to WEAVER on 26 Feb 1856, by Mr James DEAN of Macquarie Place; but by the time it was delivered to Sydney, WEAVER had been replaced as Colonial Architect, on 1 Apr, by Alexander DAWSON, formerly the Clerk of Works in Hobart.
Responsible Government in N.S.W. had already claimed it's first Public Servant victim.
And Mrs BURDEKIN's stately mansion stood on the site that is now occupied by St Stephen's Presbyterian Church.
Thomas worked hard. The whole of the prefabricated cast-iron work (manufactured in Scotland) was erected & fitted-out in about a month, although some of the ancillary office space at the rear had not yet been completed, when the first bi-cameral Legislature in Australia was officially opened on 22 May 1856 - it having only been announced 2 days prior, that the new Chamber was to become the home of the Legislative Council, & that the new Assembly (or Lower House) would meet in the old Council Chamber.
And Thomas may well have had some recent experience in just this kind of work - eighteen months earlier, and on the site immediately to the north of the Parliamentary complex, the congregation of the Free Presbyterian Church in Pitt Street had built a cast-iron church, also prefabricated in Scotland. This was the Congregation to which Thomas belonged (see below), and although the contract details have not yet located, it seems inconceivable that he did not have a large hand in it's erection, or the supervision thereof.
But returning to the Parliament, we find that Thomas continued to perform mostly minor works functions, with an occasional independent contract:
3 Nov 1856 - his tender, for £445, for building an Addition to the Steward's House at the Legislative Council Chamber was accepted.
29 Jan 1857 - requested to repair the leaky roof to the new Council Chamber.
29 Jul 1757 - requested to "work on" a number of chairs for the Press Gallery before the next Session.
16 Nov 1857 - ordered to provide a light ladder, 16 ft long, for lighting the gas lamps & other purposes.
20 Nov 1857 - ordered to re-locate the Legislative Council entrance gate further south, nearer the Infirmary Wall, to alleviate problems for turning carriages which had resulted in accidents, and improving the aspect of the building.
27 Jan 1858 - ordered to install, on the front verandah of the Legislative Assembly, a press for the storage of printed papers from the last Session.
7 Jun 1858 - ordered to re-shingle the old stables at the rear of the Assembly.
16 Jun 1858 - requested to furnish a Carpenter for a day to complete sundry repairs in the Assembly Chamber
2 Jul 1858 - requested to supply a new spring to be fixed to the door in the centre of passage leading to the Speaker's Room, & effect repairs to the kitchen fire-place.
5 Jul 1858 - requested to alter frames & sashes in the Office & No 1 Committee Room, so as to afford some ventilation.
14 Jul 1858 - ordered to investigate the opening in the centre of the ceiling of the Chamber, & fix the covering to the ceiling ventilator.
22 Jul 1858 - requested to fit two first class patent drawer locks for one of the desks in the Legislative Council Office.
6 Aug 1858 - requested to fit a lock & key to one of the Water Closet doors at the rear of the Assembly Offices.
15 Sep 1858 - ordered to purchase three more Urinal troughs to be placed in the new Water Closets being built at the rear of the Parliamentary Buildings.
25 Nov 1858 - requested to put up ropes, &c, for the Prorogation at mid-day the following day.
4 Feb 1859 - ordered to re-build the large portion of wall separating the Parliamentary grounds from the Domain which had been blown over in a storm.
23 Feb 1859 - ordered to supply a step-ladder, 6 ft high, light and narrow for the Council Office.
8 Apr 1859 - ordered to make arrangements for the closing of the present Council Session.
17 Jan 1860 - requested to re-locate a paper press from the corridor on the 1st floor into the Legislative Council Office.
15 Feb 1850 - ordered to erect suitable posts for stretching clothes lines behind the Legislative Council.
Jun 1860 - the Colonial Architect recommended that the contract for a new joint Parliamentary Library, to be built in the old Refreshment Room, with additional additions to abut the rear veranda, valued at £1150, be "...carried out upon the existing Contracts upon the Schedules" in order to save time - it is probable that this was done under the terms of Thomas SPENCE's "Annual Contract."
2 Jul 1860 - instructed to perform the necessary alterations in the Council Chamber previous to the Prorogation of Parliament on Wed 4th next.
This was the last mention of Thomas SPENCE in the files of the Colonial Architect's Correspondence, N.S.W. State Archives, researched some years ago in the Globe Street Reading Rooms.
book-ended by two imported pre-fabricated iron church structures erected by
Presbyterians - the Free Church in the foreground, and Thomas SPENCE's
Legislative Council Chamber immediately in front of the then new Sydney Hospital.]
THOMAS SPENCE AND HIS CHURCH.
Thomas was a Scot, and so a Presbyterian. He was baptised into the Established Church of Scotland at Dunfermline Abbey Church. His younger siblings were baptised at the Established Church of Scotland in Auchtertool, so that is presumably where Thomas had his first encounter with a Scottish Sabbath School.
As a young man in Manchester, he had two of his children baptised at the Scotch National Presbyterian Church in St Peter's Square. It is not yet known why he did not marry there (which he did instead in the Parish Church of St Anne's); nor why his other children born in Manchester were not baptised there.
The reasons may be related to there having been some qualifying "ground-rules" in Anglican jurisdictions prior to the Hardwicke Marriage Act (particularly as regards qualifying periods of residency), which Act freed up some Dissenters rights (particularly in regards to the Licensing of non-Established Ministers to perform marriages after the commencement of Statutory Registration); or to the fact that his wife was not Presbyterian, & they may have had a "share & share-alike" agreement relating to the children's baptisms; or simply that he or they didn't like a particular Minister, or one was then unavailable.
In Sydney, Thomas first lived at Balmain, although it seems likely there was no separate Presbyterian Church there, which is probably why his 2nd surviving daughter, Esther Jr, was baptised in Sydney - but here again, this took place at the Parish Church of St Philip's - and here again, this may have arisen due to it being Esther's "turn," or due to the unavailability of a suitable Presbyterian Minister at the time.
I have not yet found his name associated with any particular Congregation before 1852.
But there is another factor that may have come into play. The Scottish Church was well factionalised by the time Thomas emigrated to N.S.W., with a number of "dissenting" Synods operating outside of the Established Church of Scotland; and the latest "disruption" which separated the Free Church of Scotland from the Established Church would occur in 1843, shortly after his arrival here, essentially repudiating the Established Church for accepting financial support from the State for Ministerial Stipends and Building costs.
In Sydney there operated a man of the cloth even more vociferously opposed to such State Aid, one Rev John Dunmore LANG, whose stridency even kept other like-minded Free Church adherents at arms length!
Thomas does not appear to have played any major part in this Clerical factionalism, other than by his adherence to what was left of the Free Church's Synod of Eastern Australia, under Rev Alexander SALMON.
Thomas was undoubtedly in attendance, if not as the builder, then certainly as a very interested member of the congregation, when the new "Iron Church" on Macquarie Street was opened for divine service on 5 Aug 1855:
But by the time ADAM had married Elizabeth SPENCE in 1865, concerted efforts had managed to effect a tolerably functioning Union of the dissenting Synods, notwithstanding the Rev J.D. LANG.
THOMAS IMMERSES HIMSELF IN MUNICIPAL POLITICS.
In November 1857, Thomas was nominated to fill the office of Alderman for the Fitzroy Ward for the Municipality of Sydney, by John PALMER of Palmer St & Michael CHAPMAN of Crown St, the notice appearing in the Sydney Morning Herald on 30 Nov. The elections were held on 1 Dec, and Thomas defeated Michael GOLDEN, being elected to a term of 2 years.
Sydney had first obtained its Municipal Charter in 1842, the year Thomas had arrived in Sydney from Manchester. With six Wards, and the first six Alderman elected on a Sydney wide basis for a full term, with the next six for a lesser term, and a Mayor elected directly by the populace, this model did not survive much more than a decade. In 1853, the Council was dismissed by the government, in the face of losses of great numbers to the gold-rushes, for failure to providing adequate water supply & drainage/sewerage services.
The Administrators were themselves sacked, also for incompetence, and after some alterations to the Municipal Acts in Parliament created a Second Sydney Corporation, a new council was elected on 11 Apr 1857, with 8 wards, each with two Alderman, the first to a 2-year term, & the second to retire early.
One of the new Wards was Fitzroy Ward, created out of Cook Ward, & comprising the rapidly developing area between the harbour foreshore & William Street/Bayswater Road, and between Riley Street & the creek emptying into Rushcutters Bay (the area now occupied by the present-day suburbs of Woolloomooloo, Potts Point & Elizabeth Bay).
The first rotation of Alderman took place in November of the same year, and it was this election, held on 1 Dec, that Thomas SPENCE contested and won, giving him a two-year term.
And at the expiry of this term, Alderman SPENCE was re-elected, on 2 Dec 1861, by a large majority, to yet another 2 year term, to expire in Dec 1863.
But sadly, shortly after the start of his first term, on 2 Feb 1858, Thomas lost his wife Esther, who died at their residence in William Street, at the relatively young age of 52.
And on 10 Oct 1859, he was appointed by the Colonial Secretary's Office to the Bench of Magistrates for Sydney.
In Council matters, Alderman SPENCE took the usual interest in water supply, formation of streets, their kerbing & guttering, the laying of gas pipes, etc.
THOMAS IS ELECTED MAYOR OF SYDNEY.
On 9 Dec 1862, Alderman Thomas SPENCE was elected, in his absence due to illness, by a meeting of the Aldermen, to serve as the Mayor of Sydney Municipality for the year 1863.
But not without some debate, both as to the method of election, and concerning the level of remuneration. SPENCE's supporters sought an election by ballot, his opponents by open voting; after the open voting amendment was defeated, SPENCE, was declared elected, polling 10 votes to 4.
As to the Mayoral Allowance, which had been denied for 1863 by a motion passed during the previous term, acrimonious debate took place over a rescission motion that was moved to re-instate the Allowance, and amendments canvassing allowances varying from £750 to £2,000. The rescission motion won the day, and the Mayoral Allowance was set at £1000.
On Tuesday 10 Mar 1863, Mayor SPENCE thanked his supporters, and entertained the Aldermen and Officials of the Sydney Municipality to a dinner at Manly Beach, which was marked by "...unrestrained social intercourse and enjoyment of the good things provided."
And on Wed 14 Oct 1863, the Mayor went one step further - he gave a public picnic at what is now Balmoral Beach, to which his friends, and a large number of the citizens of Sydney were invited. He was clearly mindful of the debate which had occurred at his election concerning the excesses of previous Mayoralty's in the staging of lavish Balls for the entertainment of the elite; and decided to buck the trend, and entertain all classes of the people, including some of his own poorer relations.
Not that he was thanked for this display of egalitarianism. The editor of the Empire took him to task after the event, advising him to be "...more select in his company" in the future - although it must be said this advice arose due to the political co-incidence of their having just been a change of Government, which saw several
outgoing Ministers taking the opportunity to make pointed political remarks, which were judged unseemly in the presence of the Governor, Sir John YOUNG, & his wife.
Thomas entertained the gathering alongside his daughter, Elizabeth, who "...very gracefully did the honours of Mayoress on the occasion." There was a fine repast, furnished in Mr COMPAGNONI's best style, the table centrepiece, a huge block of solid ice weighing 500 lbs, creating much amusement.
The evident success of the Mayor's picnic resulted in a return match, on 10 November, at the same place, some 500 being in attendance; it was organised by a committee representing the guests who had attended the previous picnic; & Elizabeth SPENCE again represented her late mother as the Mayoress.
During his Mayoralty, Thomas SPENCE presided as chairman of several major gatherings in public meetings. In July there was a celebration of the first anniversary of the arrival in the colony of the Rev Dr Robert STEEL, a fellow Presbyterian; in September it was a meeting in support of Free Education; & in December it was a crowded meeting concerning the libel suit that was being prosecuted against the editor of the Empire newspaper by the Doctor who had sectioned a Mr MELVILLE in the Parramatta Lunatic Asylum, who had smuggled out a letter detailing his false committal, and which the Empire had published.
He also had two more civic functions to attend to - one was the "gala fête" of the National Schools of the metropolis "...on the occasion of a monster demonstration" held in Parramatta Park on 17 Dec, with over 3,000 pupils attending, with their teachers & family members - the other was watching the Regatta near Woolloomooloo Bay, from the comfort of the deck of the Flagship, the fine clipper ship Canaan, again with his daughter Elizabeth in tow.
Thomas SPENCE hung up his Mayoral robes in Dec 1863. He had foreshadowed his retirement several months earlier, announcing that he would not seek re-election for another term as Alderman.
THOMAS RETIRES - FINAL YEARS.
Thomas lived out his final years in retirement at his residence in Palmer Street. His younger daughter Esther & her husband Nathaniel NEALE lived with him, and she probably acted as his carer.
Thomas was very shaken by Esther's death in 1876, and one of his obituaries went so far as to suggest he never recovered from the shock of it.
His financial circumstances may not have been as rosy as his property portfolio might have suggested - he was either forced, or chose, to mortgage one of his properties, a mortgage that was not discharged during what was left of his lifetime.
Thomas SPENCE died at his residence at 126 Palmer Street on 1 Aug 1878; he was buried at Devonshire Street Cemetery, along with his wife & daughter.
His additional details were inscribed on the standing sandstone gravestone he had erected when his wife died. It was removed, along with their exhumed remains, and re-erected over their re-interred remains at Gore Hill Cemetery. This was done in order to make way for the Central Railway extensions to the suburban Railways network, begun around 1900, & completed by the opening of the Harbour Bridge in 1932.
Thomas informed the N.S.W. Registrar on the occasion of his wife Esther's death in 1857 that they had had issue of 8 children, 6 of whom had pre-deceased her, they being 4 boys and 2 girls un-named; 3 of the children have yet to be identified; those that have been are as follows:
1. Margaret Jane SPENCE, born Manchester, 9 Feb 1835, & baptised at the Scotch National Presbyterian Church, St Peter's Square, Manchester on 14 Feb; died young, before the 1841 Census, and probably before Statutory Registration commenced on 1 Jul 1837.
2. Elizabeth SPENCE, b Manchester, 14 May 1836; emigrated to N.S.W. with her parents, 1841; died at "Cadara" near Tottenham, 21 Jun 1932; married at 108 (later re-numbered 126) Palmer Street, Woolloomooloo, 4 Apr 1865, Rev James ADAM, M.A., Presbyterian Minister of Carcoar; issue 4 children, two of whom died in infancy. See his separate blog on this blog-page.
3. Alexander SPENCE; born at Owen St, Hulme, Manchester, 7 Jun 1839; died at 28 Owen Street, 10 Feb 1841, of Measles (both events Registered at Chorlton). Possibly buried in the Rusholme Road Cemetery, Chorlton Row.
4. An un-named son; born 27 Dec 1841, at about the half-way point of the voyage out to N.S.W.; died aged 5 hours, & buried at sea.
5. Esther SPENCE, born at Balmain, 29 May 1843, & baptised at St Philip's Parish Church, Sydney, by Rev William COWPER; died at 126 Palmer Street, Woolloomooloo, 7 Jul 1876; married at 126 Palmer Street, 2 Nov 1869, Nathaniel NEALE, Customs Locker; no issue.
Of the 6 deceased children that Thomas mentioned in 1857, the balance of unidentified children, 2 boys & 1 girl, were either born in Manchester (poss ca Nov-Dec 1837, or ca Sep-Oct 1840) or in Sydney (Rev J.D. LANG buried a Thomas SPENCE, 7 Jul 1854, an infant, parents not identified).