Thursday, May 19, 2016

PIGOTT Family mentions in Quaker Records of Tithe Confiscations in the Queen's County in Ireland.


My knowledge of matters relating to Tithes, their assessments and collections, is not expansive. I have always understood that the word tithe originated as a one-tenth part, and that tithe assessments would, by-and-large, have been around that proportion of a person's income, in cash or kind.

Inevitably, church tithes were the parochial equivalent of present day Council Rates; and in the mono-ecclesiastical era of preceding the Commonwealth inter-regnum, everyone was expected to pay their tithes. The Vestry had responsibility for local minor roads, and town and village streets and laneways; and of course, the Market Square, with the parish pump in the days before water was reticulated into homes in pipes. These "infrastructure" assets cost money to construct and maintain, and everyone shared in the benefits. But these tithes also supplemented the Vicar's stipend, paid the Church wardens wages, and fattened the accounts of the local principal land-owners.

I have become increasingly aware, over the years, of the resistance by members of dissenting church bodies against tithe assessments of church wardens, and others, associated with the Established Church, in England and in Ireland. Before CROMWELL's time, the Anabaptists were active, and in the early days of the Commonwealth, religious diversity was tolerated, with the rise of odd groups like the Muggletonians, and the Irish "Strokers" associated with Valentine GREATRAKES, as well as the Quakers, who first appeared in County Armagh in 1654. And the Baptists, having formally adopted that name in England about 1644, were very much in the mix as well.

But after the Restoration, that tolerance quickly began to evaporate; the Quaker's Act of 1662 made it illegal to refuse to take the Oath of Allegiance to the Crown, who was, after all, the Head of the Church in England and in Ireland.

I was also aware that in particular, the punitive treatment meted out to members of the Religious Society of Friends (or Quakers), led to much suffering, especially when they were sent to prison even after tithe confiscations had been exacted. After James II's Declaration of Indulgence in 1687, the English Parliament passed the Toleration Act of 1689. This eased the obligations imposed in the 1662 Quaker's Act, which had made it illegal to refuse to take the Oath of Allegiance to the Crown, who was the Restored Head of the Church in England. While the Quakers could now meet in public as dissenters without breaking the law (which they had been doing anyway), it certainly did not stop the tithe persecutions, nor the beatings and gaolings for outspoken dissent. In 1681, William PENN, who had spent time in County Cork in 1667, attending to his father's estates, and was known to Charles II, was granted the right to establish a Quaker settlement in America, in a colony that became known as Pennsylvania.

But the mechanics of tithing has, until now, remained somewhat of a mystery.

I have recently discovered a fairly comprehensive record of "Sufferings" in the form of Congregational Records of the Quakers in Ireland, which "register books" have been digitalised, and the images made available on the findmypast.co.uk web-site, under licensing arrangements made by the copyright holder, the Historical Society of the Religious Society of Friends in Ireland Archives, and which I have accessed using the institutional subscription of the State Library of N.S.W.

My specific interest in these records lies in the mentions made in them of members of my ancestral family members, the PIGOTT's of Dysart in the Queen's County.
And of them, there are over 200 mentions, more than 180 of those being in the category of "Sufferings" - an ongoing and very detailed written account of those Quakers who had had goods and possessions taken from them for the "non-payment" of tithes, and for other intermittent assessments made for the maintenance of the Parish Church, and for wages of the Church Wardens.

And the PIGOTTs are, of course, the "bad guys" - named as tithetakers, as tithemakers, and also as both forms of the authority these first two groups have cited - the Vicar of the parish, and the Proprietor of the principal estate, who was also the Patron of the Parish, and who had appointed the vicar in the first place.
This three tiered hierarchy is clearly stated in nearly all of the records pertaining to the combined parishes of Dysart and Kilteale, in the Queen's County, which were administered by the one Vicar, and for very many years had the one church building, located very near the Dysart estate buildings.

And what I find there is a very clear confirmation of the lineage of the Proprietors of the Dysart Estate, in these records entitled the Impropriator, from the earliest record dated 1671, up until the latter part of the 18th century.
Further, the names of the Vicar of Dysart and Kilteale, recorded in these accounts as "...ye Priest of ye Parish," also follow a very recognisable pattern, with only two occasions where other records of Ecclesiastical Appointments do not quite match the Quaker records, as we shall see below.
And finally, the numerous PIGOTTs mentioned at the lower end of the tiered scale, the Tithe-takers, are mostly recognisable, if not able to be conclusively identified from among two or more contemporary relations with the same given name.

FARMING METHODS IN THE HARVESTING OF TILLAGE CROPS.

My knowledge of farming methods is probably much inferior to my limited knowledge of tithing.

However, some quick and necessarily superficial reading indicates that grain crops, like wheat, barley, oats and bere (a type of barley, perhaps better suited to more extreme northern climates such as the Orkney Islands and in Norway), were often rotated, with root crops (particularly potatoes) grown between rotations of wheat and barley.
I also discover that wheat and barley (particularly barley intended for malting into beer or vinegar), was left to fully ripen before harvesting, and so could be threshed sooner, and sometimes even at the time of harvesting; and that oats were usually cropped on the green side, which meant that sheaves were stored in stooks to dry out before threshing.
And I am guessing that a stook is merely a stack of sheaves, but inevitably placed in such a way as to facilitate drying of the ears and the stalks.
However, we find from an entry made in 1704, that the "...most part of a stack of wheat" contained "...about 550 sheaves"; likewise "...one stook and a half of bere being about 1,000 sheaves, three stooks and a half of oats being about 2,840 sheaves, part of a stook of barley about 480 sheaves"; which suggests that on average, a stook held somewhere between 666 sheaves (bere) and 810 (oats).

Grain crops were cut, I gather, near the ground, probably using a sickle in one hand to cut a bundle of stalks held in the other, and quantities of cut stalks with heads were then bound into a sheave, which might be left standing where cut in the field, until placed in stooks, or threshed on the spot if they were ripe enough.
I had also thought it likely that a farmer would probably move his harvest into protective shelter, but I also now understand that stooks were set up in the fields where they were cut so that those crops harvested on the green side could dry out, but with a roof of straw to keep the rain off; so perhaps the threshing of stook-dried sheaves also took place out of doors, weather permitting.

This goes a small way to explain the mention in entries of the quantities of each crop type - some were in sheaves, some from stooks, both before threshing had taken place, and others in car loads, perhaps the grain after threshing, with the remaining hay taken away likewise in car loads.

Although I was originally none the wiser as to what quantity a car load actually represents. I had thought it may have been a cart load, perhaps drawn by oxen, but the sheer numbers involved would appear to have taken too long to transport from farm to tithe barn. Perhaps the farmer used a smaller hand cart to transport his crops from field to his own barn for threshing or storage, and this may have been used as the measure?
However, an entry for 1702 does go some way to answering this question - it recorded that "...2 carloads of bere computed to be 180 sheaves" and that "...1 carload of wheat computed to be 80 sheaves" - which aren't exactly the same, but are probably close enough.

The monetary values attributed to individual items confiscated are also not entirely clear, and probably varied over the seasons and across the years.
We find from an entry made in 1723, that "...40 fleeces of wool" was stated to be "...worth £3:10:0" - that is, each fleece was priced at 1 shilling and 9 pence.
The same 1723 entry also recorded that "...30 lambs and 70 fleeces of wool" were estimated to be "...worth £7:18:0" - from which we can calculate that a lamb was estimated to be worth 1 shilling and 2 pence farthing.
Or I thought it did? But after a second mathematical iteration, I'm not so sure! So happy that we have been spared those ongoing calculations, with 20 shillings to the pound and 12 pence to the shilling, after the decimalisation of our currency here in Australia in 1966.
The same entry records that about 22 and a half carloads of assorted crops was valued at £9:9:6, at an average of about 8 shillings and 6 pence per carload, which, from data mentioned above, computes to about 1 pence farthing a sheave, which doesn't sound like very much. Even in 1723 prices.

THE IRISH QUAKER RECORDS OF TITHE SUFFERINGS.

The entries are written into register books, which, as the Society spread to other Provinces, were subsequently titled using the following general format:

"Sufferings of Friends in ... Province in the year ... because for conscience sake they could not pay Tithes and Priest's wages, the repairs of the Worship House, etc, with such like other demands."

Very few of the entries have more date information than the just the year.

The spelling of the PIGOTT surname varied, as usually occurs when records are written by people who do not bear the name, but has been standardised below using the spelling used in the signature of every member of the Dysart family who signed a deed which still survives.
I have also standardised the spelling of the word tithe, variously spelt by the Quaker scribes otherwise as Tyth and Tythe; as well as the tithe crop named bere (a type of barley), for Bare, Bear, and Beare; and also two means of the taking - carload for Carr Loade, and stooks, occasionally rendered as Stacks and Stakes.
I have also inserted, at appropriate times, known genealogical details of individual family members mentioned in the records. In particular, there are a number of citations from Rev J.B. LESLIE's "Biographical Succession List of the Clergy of Kildare Diocese," 1904, for the Parish of Dysart-Enos, at pages 209-210 [LESLIE].
Apart from several early mentions of the affairs of Rosenallis Parish, where a junior branch of the PIGOTTs were Proprietors of the Capard estate, the vast majority pertain to tithings in the Parishes of Dysart and Kilteale.

The first Register Book to record Queen's County Sufferings was entitled:

"The Register Book of the Sufferings of some of the Lord's people in Ireland; who by scornfull Spirits Are Called Quakers; now living in or neare Mountmellick, in ye yeare 1661."

And it followed the misfortunes of several men called Quakers, namely William and John EDMONDSON, as they moved from Lurgan, "...Countie Ardmagh" (1654 to 1656), through Belturbet in County Cavan (1656 to 1658), and finally to Mountmellick, Queen's County by 1658.
William EDMONDSON had been a soldier in the Parliamentary Army in England, but left it to go to Ireland with his wife Margaret; and on a short return visit to England, he heard word of the Society of Friends, and became a "missionary" for them on his return to Lurgan, in County Armagh.

THE PIGOTT MENTIONS IN THE QUAKER RECORDS.

The first mention of the name PIGOTT did not appear until 1672, although it was in reference to a group of tithe demands first made in 1666, and William EDMUNDSON was the first named of that particular group, as follows.

1672:
"William EDMONDSON, Godfrey CANTREL, William BARCROFT, Roger BOSWELL, Thomas STALKER, Tobias PLODMORE, Thomas STEVENSON, John THOMPSON and John CANTRELL, because for conscience sake could not pay £1 16s and 10d demanded in the year 1666 towards the repainting of the parish worship house of Rosenallis, had then goods taken from them worth £6 8s and 6d; and notwithstanding, at the following archives [probably in error for Assizes] were presented for non-payment of the said demand and so indicted and cast into prison, and upon application to the then Lord Lieutenant and Council, they gave instructions to the judges to quash the said indictment in order to their inlargement, which was accordingly done.
"Yet Thomas PIGOTT of Disert, who was then High Sheriff of the said county, got at last summer Assizes an order to distrain Friends goods for non payment of fees, through pretence that Hercules DOXE, Clerk of the Crown, had recovered the fees from him; and so since, the said PIGOTT went in person with some bailiffs and Attendants into the possessions of Friends and from William EDMONDSON they took away 4 cows of English breed worth £10, Goodfrey CANTRILL 4 cows of the like kind worth £9, William BARCROFT 3 cows (likewise) £10, Roger BOSWELL 3 cows (likewise) £6, Thomas STALKER tanned hides and other goods worth £10, Tobias PLODWAY cloth and household goods worth £7, amounting in all to £52.
"George RUSSELL of Garrach, for 40s value of tithe demanded for Robert JONES, Priest of Caterlogh, had taken from him 1 cow, 4 heifers and 2 bullocks worth £14 by the said priest, with Paratox PROCTOR, and John MURRAY, Constable, by virtue of a warrant from Thomas PIGOTT and Robert HARTPOLE called Justices of the Peace."
Thomas PIGOTT was born about 1640-41, son of Robert PIGOTT (born about 1613 and died a week before his father in 1646), the heir apparent to Dysart, by his wife Ann GILBERT; Thomas probably obtained livery of Dysart about 1661-62, and was married to Elizabeth WELDON in 1663.
1674 - 5th of 5 entries for that year:
"Richard JACKSON had near 40 stooks of oats taken from him by Daniel MOORE, Charles MUCKELMORE and Arthur PIGOTT, Tithemongers, by order from Charles DUN, Impropriator, and George CLAPHAM, Priest of Mountmellick, for tithe, worth 9s."
Arthur PIGOTT (here, and the next) was probably the youngest son of Sir Robert PIGOTT (1565-1642) and his 2nd wife Thomasin CASTILLION alias PEYTON (and so probably born about 1610-1620). Indeed, there is no other Arthur PIGOTT mentioned in any Irish record for this period. He was named in his father's will, dated 1641; and he was named as being present at the storm and sack of Dysart by rebels on 6 October 1646, in his sister-in-law Martha PIGOTT's deposition taken 3 weeks after the sack, and as having secured the grate after Barnaby DUNN was allowed out to negotiate terms of a cessation. Charles DUN may have been related to Barnaby DUNN, who had married as his second wife and her second husband, Elizabeth alias Isabel COSBY, the eldest daughter of Sir Robert PIGOTT by his first wife Anne St LEGER.
1679:
"Godfrey CANTRELL had taken from him, by Arthur PIGOTT called Churchwarden of the parish of Rosenallis, and James MITTON, Constable, the 11th day of the 10th month, one pewter dish worth 3s 4d, for 2s 4d demanded for their worship-house lobie, because for conscience sake he could not pay the sum."

1693:
"William EDMONDSON, for 1s 10d demanded, toward the repair of Rosenallis Worship House, had taken from him by Thomas PIGOTT and John HILL, called Church Wardens - one hand saw and a spade worth 3s 6d."
Thomas PIGOTT is not formally identified. He was probably one of the younger sons of Thomas PIGOTT of Dysart, the Impropriator, unless instead a Capard cousin. He may have witnessed John PIGOTT of Kilcromin and Antigua's will in 1708-09.
1695:
"Henry RIDGWAY had taken from him for tithe, by Peter WEAVER, Thomas HUGHES and other assistants, Tithe gatherers for John WEAVER Junior, farmers of tithe under Thomas PIGOTT, Impropriator - about 50 fleeces of wool and 33 lambs, all worth £9 9s. And by the aforesaid Peter WEAVER, George SLATER and other assistants - of wheat, bere, barley and oats, worth about £2, some of it being taken on the highway by carloads, and some out of the stooks in a confused manner..."

1698:
"An account of goods taken from several friends on account of the double part of the pole.
"William EDMONDSON, by order of Colonel WARNFORD, Richard WARBURTON, Hopton HARRITT, Lancelot SANDS, Robert PIGOTT and Richard HALL, Priest, Commissioners for the said pole, for 10 shillings 6d pence demanded, had taken from him by John IVETTIN (?) Collector, - 1 dipex (? perhaps diaper) table cloth, 2 dipex napkins, 1 warming pan, 2 brass candlesticks and a smoothing iron, all worth 19 shillings.
"Joshua BEALE, for £3 15 s demanded, had taken from him by the said collectors - about a hundred yards of Linen Cloth worth £5 16s 6d.
"Richard GUY, for 10s 6d demanded, had taken from him by the said collectors - Linen Cloth and Frieze worth 16s. And had his shop box snatched away by the collectors and 5s 3d taken out of it.
"Tobyas PLEADWELL, for 2s 3d demanded, had a coat taken from him worth 4s 6d by the said collectors.
"John SOFTLAW, for £1 1s. demanded, had 5 yards of Camelot and 28 yards of Curlderoy (? corduroy) taken from him by the collectors, worth £1 12s.
"Robert JACKSON, for 19s 6d demanded, had stopt in payment of money by the said collectors 6s 9d and had a barrel of Malt taken worth 16s, in all worth £1 2s 9d."
"John GOODBODY, for 3s demanded, had taken from him - a sheet and pillion, both worth 8s."
Ralph STEVENSON, for 13p demanded, had taken from him by the said collectors - 1 brass skillet worth 3s."
"Thomas ATKINSON had taken from him by the said collectors, for 2s 3d demanded - 2 pewter dishes, worth 4s.
"Francis SHANAN had taken from him by the said collectors, for 13p demanded - an iron pot, worth 3s 6d.
"William QUIN had taken from him by the said collectors, for 2s 3d, demanded - one sheet and a pot, worth 3s 6d.
"Joshua PEET had taken from him by Thomas LAWSON and William DOXXAN (?), Priest, Collectors, by order of John BARRINGTON Roger ALLEN and Andrew NESBITT, priest, Commissioners, for 9 shillings demanded, 6 pounds of worsted worth 12 s."
Robert PIGOTT was born about 1664, eldest son and heir of Thomas PIGOTT and Elizabeth WELDON. Lancelot SANDES was Thomas PIGOTT's son-in-law, having married Elizabeth PIGOTT, one of Thomas's daughters. Andrew NESBITT had been instituted on 20 May 1692 as Vicar of Dysart-Enos and Kilteale, with the Vicarage of Nogh(?)vale and Moyanna [D.R.]; he died in 1712 (see Balintubber) [LESLIE, page 209]; he was married to Martha PIGOTT, a daughter of John PIGOTT of Rahineduff (an uncle of Thomas PIGOTT) by his wife Mary EDGEWORTH (the widow of Pierce MOORE).
1699:
"Henry RIDGWAY had taken from him for tithe, by John PIGOTT (and assistants), Tithetaker under Andrew NESBITT, priest of the parish of Dysart and Kilteale, and John WEAVER Junior, tithemonger under Thomas PIGOTT, Impropriator - 7 carloads of wheat, besides 1 whole stook of wheat out of 3 stooks, 1 stook and a half of bere, 6 carloads of barley, 9 carloads of oats, 1 carload of pease and 14 carloads of hay. And by Thomas HUGHS and Thomas LUTTERILL (and assistants), Servants of the said priest NESBITT - 51 lambs and about 76 fleeces of wool..."
John PIGOTT is not formally identified. However, he is very likely to have been John of Kilcromin and Antigua, the 2nd son of Thomas PIGOTT and Elizabeth WELDON; he returned to Ireland from Antigua in about 1697-98 with his wife Frances and their young family, and established them in the house at Kilcromin, where the family grew; but he went back to the West Indies in 1708-09, perhaps alone, and was killed at St John's in the PARKE Riot in December 1710. See also 1706 below.
1700:
"Jacob THOMPSON had taken from him for tithe, by Alexander PIGOTT and his assistant, Tithetakers under Andrew NESBIT, Priest of ye parish of Kilteale, and John WEAVER ye younger, Tithe-monger under Thomas PIGOTT, Impropriator - 3 carload of bere, 2 of wheat, 2 of oats, 1 of barley and pease, and 4 of hay, all worth £1 18s."
"Henry RIDGWAY of Ballycarrill had taken from him for tithe, by ye said Alexander PIGOTT and Assistants, Tithe-taker as aforesaid - 1 Stook and a half of bere, 1 stook and part of another of wheat, 2 stooks and part of another of oats, part of a stook of barley, and about 200 carloads of hay, all worth about £12:0:0..."
Alexander PIGOTT is not formally identified. He was probably either another younger son Thomas PIGOTT and Elizabeth WELDON, or instead a first cousin (or a son thereof), perhaps of Innishannon, County Cork, or of Rahineduff in Queen's County. See also 1704 below.
1702:
"Jacob THOMPSON had taken from him for tithe, by John McOBOY, William McOBOY and their Assistant, Tithetakers under John WEAVER the younger, Tithemonger under Thomas PIGOTT, Impropriator, and Andrew NESBITT (spelled WESTBITT), Priest of the Parishes of Disart and Kilteale - 2 carloads of hay, 2 carloads of bere computed to be 180 sheaves, 1 carload of wheat computed to be 80 sheaves, 1 load of pease about 50 sheaves, 27 sheaves of barley, 14 sheaves of beans, 100 sheaves of oats and about 1 barrel of potatoes. And by William SCULLY and assistants - 80 sheaves of oats. All worth about 1:7:9."
Thomas PIGOTT Senior died in 1702 (this year-only date was recorded in both Appellants' and Defendant's cases in the House of Lords litigation over Kilcromin, 1723-24); this was his last mention. He was succeeded as Impropriator of the parish of Dysart by his eldest son and heir, Robert PIGOTT, who had only just returned to Ireland from London, shortly before his father's death, with his newly wedded wife, Judith BURGOYNE.
1703:
"Jacob THOMPSON had taken from him for tithe, by Thomas PIGOTT and his assistant, Tithetaker under Robert PIGOTT, Impropriator, for two thirds, and Andrew NESBITT, Priest of the Parish of Dysart and Kilteale for one third - 5 carloads of hay, 118 sheaves of bere, 63 sheaves of barley, six sheaves of pease, 2 carloads of oats, 1 carload of wheat. And by Daniel GORMELL, Tithemonger for small tithes under Andrew NESBIT aforesaid, 1 goose. All worth £1:8:6."
Thomas PIGOTT is not formally identified; he was probably another and younger son of the late Thomas PIGOTT Senior, unless a cousin (Thomas PIGOTT of Rahineduff died in or before 1719, leaving a son Thomas Junior, who died in 1729) - see also 1706 below.
1704:
"Jacob TOMPSON had taken from him for Tithe, by Thady FITZPATRICK and Derby CAREY, Tithe-takers, John FITZPATRICK, Teige MULOGHER and James QUIN, Tithe-mongers under Andrew NESBIT, Priest of the parish of Kilteale, and Alexander PIGOTT, Tithe-maker under Robert PIGOTT, Impropriator, two-thirds - of three Carr loads of hay worth 4s 6d..."
"Henry RIDGWAY had taken from him for Tithe, by Alexander PIGOTT, Tithe-taker under Robert PIGOTT, Impropriator, of two thirds, and by Peter REED, servant to Andrew NESBIT, Priest of the Parishes of Kilteel and Disart, for one third, and their assistants - 62 lambs, and 180 Fleeces of wool (halfe of the sheep the said wool was taken for grazed in the parish of Aghaboe and Diocese of Ossory, which they had no ... for), all worth £13 4s 6d. More was taken from him by the said Alexander PIGOTT and his assistants - most part of a stack of wheat containing about 550 sheaves which they took away besides one stook and a half of bere being about 1,000 sheaves, three stooks and a half of oats being about 2,840 sheaves, part of a stook of barley about 480 sheaves, 80 sheaves of Pease and 36 stooks of Hay worth together £13 8s. All worth £27:2:6."

1706:
"Henry RIDGWAY, for £4:9:4 demanded towards repair of ye parish worship house of Dysart, Warden's wages, etc, had taken from him by ye servants of John PIGOTT and Bowen BRERETON called Wardens -  3 large bullocks worth £7:4:6."
"Henry RIDGWAY had more taken from him for tithe by William CONRAN and assistants, Tithetakers under Robert PIGOTT, Impropriator, of two thirds, and Andrew NESBITT, priest of ye parish of Disart and Kilteale for one third - 49 lambs and 123 fleeces of wool, worth £12:18:0. More taken from him by William NISBETT, (son to the said priest NESBITT) and his assistants, Tithetaker from Thomas PIGOTT, Tithemonger under ye said Robert PIGOTT - 10 carloads of hay, 1 whole stook and 2 carloads of wheat, 2 stooks and 3 carload of oats, 1 stook of barley, 3 stooks of bere, and half a carload of beans. All worth £20:14:0."

1707:
"Henry RIDGWAY had taken from him for tithe, by Thomas NESBIT, son to Andrew NESBIT, Priest of ye parish of Disart and Kilteale, for one third, and Samuel BOOKER, Tithe-monger under Robert PIGOTT, Impropriator, of two thirds, and their assistants - 56 lambs and 120 fleeces of wool..."

1708:
"Jacob THOMPSON had taken from him for tithe, by John FITZPATRICK and Martin DUEGEN, Tithetakers under John FITZPATRICK, Tithemonger under the said Robert PIGOTT and Andrew NESBITT - 5 carloads of hay, 115 sheaves of bere, 21 sheaves of beans, 12 sheaves of barley, and about 5 bushels of potatoes, worth in all £1:16:3, and taken by the servants of the said Robert PIGOTT - 15 Kishes (?) of turfe work, 1s 3d, in all £1:17:6."

1709:
"Jacob THOMPSON had taken from him for tithe, by Darby DUFFY and Daniel MURPHY, Tithetakers  under Andrew NESBITT, Priest of the parish of Disart and Killteele, for one third, and Robert PIGOTT, Impropriator, for two thirds - 5 carloads of hay, 242 sheaves of bere, 4 carloads of oats and barley, 45 sheaves of wheat, 12 sheaves of beans and about 2 barrels and a half of potatoes, all worth £2:3:0."
"Henry RIDGWAY had taken from him for tithe, by William CONRAN and several others his assistants - 10 fleeces of wool and 41 lambs, worth £8:3:6. For the use of Andrew NESBITT, priest of the parish of Killteele and Disart, and Robert PIGOTT, Impropriator. More taken by Andrew NESBITT, son to the said priest NESBITT, and Thady BOYLAN and assistants - 15 carloads of bere, 6 carloads of barley, 7 carloads of wheat, 10 carloads of oats, and 10 carloads of hay, worth £11:0:0."

1710:
"Henry RIDGWAY had taken from him for tithe, by the servants of the said priest and to his and the aforesaid Impropriator's use in the parish of Rosenallis - 4 carloads of hay waste. And more taken from him for tithe by William CONRAN, Teige COSTILAGH, and (...) Tithegatherers under Andrew NESBITT, priest of the parish of Disart and Kilteele for one third, and Robert PIGOTT, impropriator, for two thirds - 103 fleeces of wool and 44 lambs, worth £8:0:0. More taken by the same hands - 18 carloads of hay, 16 carloads of bere, 3 loads of beans, 16 carloads of wheat, 9 carloads of oats, 5 carloads of barley and 5 carloads of pease, worth £9:7:0. All worth £18:4:0."

1711:
"Henry RIDGWAY... More taken from him for tithe by Andrew NESBITT, son to Andrew NESBITT, priest of the parish of Disart and Kilteal, and his assistants - 103 fleeces of wool, 31 lambs, and to his use and to Robert PIGOTT, Impropriator, and by John HIGGINS, Edmond FLANAGAN and assistants, servants to said Impropriator - 11 carloads of hay, 13 carloads of bere, 9 carloads of wheat, 5 carloads of barley. And by Daniel CONRAN and assistants, tithetakers under the said Impropriator - 5 carloads of wheat, 1 carload of oats..."
On 20 December 1712, Rev Andrew NESBITT died, and in his place, Rev John PIGOTT was instituted Vicar of Dysart-enos and Kilteale [LESLIE, page 209], on presentation by the Patron, his second cousin Robert PIGOTT, the Impropriator. John was born in Chetwynd, County Cork in 1686, 2nd son of Thomas PIGOTT of Innishannon, County Cork, by his wife Mary MOORE; he was admitted to Trinity College, Dublin, on 30 June 1701, and graduated B.A. in 1705, and M.A. in 1708; he was later of Loughrea, County Galway. His older brother Emanuel PIGOTT purchased Dysart in 1725 (see below).
1713:
"Henry RIDGWAY had taken from him for tithe, by John HIGGINS [space] and their assistants, Tithegatherers under John PIGOTT, priest of the parish of Disart and Kilteale, for one third, and Robert PIGOTT, Impropriator, for 2 thirds - 88 lambs and 118 fleeces of wool, worth 16:15:9, and 10 carloads of bere, 8 carloads of wheat, 54 stooks of barley and 70 stooks of oats worth £18:8:0..."
... [bottom of same page] ...
"Jacob THOMPSON had taken from him for tithes by Daniel MURPHY and assistants, Tithetakers under henry FITZGERALD, Tithemonger under the aforesaid John PIGOTT, Priest and Robert PIGOTT, Impropriator - 170 sheaves of bere, 172 sheaves of oats, 16 sheaves of bere and pease, all worth £1:8:0."


1720:
"Henry RIDGWAY had taken from him for tithe, by John HIFGGGINS and John PHELAN an assistants, Tithetakers under William DAWSON, Priest and Tithemonger under John PIGOTT, Priest of the Parish of Disart and Kiltaile, for one third, and under Robert PIGOTT, Impropriator, of the other two thirds - 35 lambs and 80 fleeces of wool, worth 2;15:6. And by John and James HIGGINS and Lawrence BRINNAN, Tithetakers under said Priest DAWSON, Tithmonger as aforesaid - 6 carloads of wheat, 11 carloads of bere and barley, 14 carloads of oats, 18 carloads of hay, some pease and beans, worth 8:0:0. All worth 20:15:0."

1723:
"Henry RIDGWAY had taken from him for tithe, by John HIGGINS and assistants, servants to Robert PIGOTT, Impropriator, for two thirds, and by tithetakers under John PIGOTT, Priest of the Parish of Disart and Killtail, for one third, - 30 lambs and 70 fleeces of wool, worth £7:18:0. And by said HIGGINS and assistants - 9 carload of bere, 6 carloads of barley, 3 carloads of wheat, 4 carloads of hay, 2 small carloads of pease, worth £9:9:6. All worth £17:4:6.
"John RIDGWAY had taken from him for tithe, by the said John HIGGINS and assistants, servants as before - 40 fleeces of wool, worth £3:10:0.
"Daniel HUSTON had taken from him for tithe, by Richard TOWNSEND and Keeran MacCARY, Servants to the aforesaid Robert PIGOTT - 10 carloads of bere, 7 carloads of oats, about half a carload of wheat, 1 carload of barley, worth 6:5:6. And by Thomas PRIDE and Cormack FENELLY, Tithetakers under said Robert PIGOTT - about 3 barrels and a half of potatoes, worth 9s. All worth £6:14:0."
At these rates, a fleece of wool is assessed as being worth 1 shilling and 9 pence; and a lamb therefore worth 1 shilling and 6 pence.
1728:
"John RIDGWAY had taken from him for tithe, by Michael BROWN and Bryan DEMPSEY and their assistance (sic), Tithetakers under Robert PIGOTT, Tithetaker under John PIGOTT, Priest of ye parish of Dysart and Kilteale for one third, and Impropriator of ye other two thirds - 106 fleeces of wool and 33 lambs, worth £11:3:9. And by ye said Michael BROWN and his assistance, servants to Pigott SANDS, Tithetaker under ye said Robert PIGOTT - 33 car load of bere, 5 car load of oats and 2 car load of barley, worth £13:19:0. And by Walter PIGOTT and his assistance, Tithetaker under said Pigott SANDS - 25 car loads of hay and 2 ridges of potatoes, worth £3:10:0. And by James KELLY and James KINNYGON under ye said Robert PIGOTT - 480 stooks of oats and 6 car load of wheat, worth £3:14:0. All worth £32:6:9."
Walter PIGOTT was undoubtedly another younger son of Thomas PIGOTT and Elizabeth WELDON, and so a younger brother of Robert the Impropriator; he was probably otherwise known as "Old Major" PIGOTT of Antigua. See also 1731, 1732, 1733, 1734 and 1735 below. Pigott SANDES was yet another cousin, being a son of Lancelot SANDES (see 1698 above) and Elizabeth PIGOTT (she was Robert's sister).
1730:
"John RIDGWAY had taken from him for tithe, by William CONRAN and his assistants, servants to Emanuel PIGOTT, Tithemonger under John PIGOTT, Priest of ye parish of Kilteale for one third, the said Emanuel PIGOTT being impropriator of ye other two thirds - 32 lambs and 84 fleeces of wool worth £12:0:0. And by Walter PIGOTT and his assistants, Tithe-taker under said Emanuel PIGOTT - 30 carloads of bere, 3 carloads of wheat, 270 stooks of oats, 32 carloads of hay and 2 ridges of potatoes, worth £10:12:0. All worth £22:12:0.
"Daniel HUSON had taken from him for tithe, by Lawrence BRENNAN and his assistants, Tithetaker under said Emanuel PIGOTT - 126 stooks of oats, 6 carload of bere, 4 carload of hay, all worth £2:6:0.
"Jacob THOMPSON had taken from him for tithe, by John HIGGINS and his assistants, Tithetaker under said Emanuel PIGOTT - 8 carloads of hay, 23 carloads of bere, 10 carloads of oats, and 3 ridges of potatoes, worth £5:11:0. And by Thomas PIGOTT and his assistants, Tithe-taker under said Emanuel PIGOTT - 1 carload of bere, 8 carloads of wheat, 6 carloads of bere, 2 carloads of oats, 4 carloads of pease and 2 ridges of potatoes, worth £2:10:0. All worth £8:1:0.
"John POORE had taken from him for tithe, by said Thomas PIGOTT and his assistants, Tithetaker - 6 carloads of hay, 7 carloads of bere, 4 carloads of wheat, 2 carloads of oats and 1 carload of pease, worth 1:18:0. And by Patrick DARCY and his assistants, Tithe-taker under said Emanuel PIGOTT - 15 carloads of bere, 4 carloads of barley, 6 carloads of oats and 5 ridges of potatoes, worth 2:15:0. All worth 4:13:0."
Emanuel PIGOTT of Chetwynd, County Cork, was born in 1684, the eldest son of Thomas PIGOTT of Innishannon, by his wife Mary MOORE, and so the elder brother of Rev John PIGOTT; he had purchased the Manor of Dysart in 1725, and would assume full Impropriator status after his 2nd cousin Robert's death in May 1730 (Robert sold Dysart on condition he continue to live there until his death, which arrangement evidently preserved his Impropriatorial status within the parish). Thomas PIGOTT is not formally identified; he was perhaps the eldest son of the late John PIGOTT of Kilcromin and Antigua, otherwise known as the litigating nephew of Robert, whose successful appeal to the House of Lords over the ownership of Kilcromin led Robert to sell the Dysart estate to Emanuel - or another?
1731:
"John RIDGWAY had taken from him for tithe, by Robert MADDOCKS and Keran McNARY and their assistance, servants to Jonathan and Joseph BALDWIN, Tithetakers under Emmanuel PIGOTT, Tithemonger under John PIGOTT, Priest of ye Parish of Disart and Kilteale, for one third, and the said Emmanuel PIGOTT being Impropriator of the other two thirds - 77 fleeces of wool and 38 lambs worth £13:10:0. And by Walter PIGOTT, Tithetaker under said BALDWIN - 20 carloads of bere, 5 carloads of oats, 3 carloads of wheat and 28 carloads of hay, worth £7:0:0. All worth £20:10:0."

1732:
"John POWER had taken from him for tithe, by Daniel FENNELLY and his assistance, Tithetaker under J. BALDWIN - 3 carloads of hay, 15 carloads of oats, 2 carloads of bere, 2 carloads of barley and 3 and a half ridges of potatoes, worth £4:13:0. And by Walter PIGOTT and his assistance - 5 carloads of bere, worth 12:0..."

1733:
"John RIDGWAY had taken from him for tithe, by William HIGENS and Thomas MADDOCKS, Servants to Joseph BALDWIN, Tithemonger under Emanuel PIGOTT, Tithemonger under John PIGOTT, Priest of ye parish of Kilteal and Dysart, for one third, the said Emanuel PIGOTT being Impropriator for the other two thirds - 68 fleeces of wool and 26 lambs, worth £11:00:00. And by Walter PIGOTT, Tithetaker under said BALDWIN - 10 carloads of bere, 15 carloads of oats, 6 carloads of barley, 26 carloads of hay, and 2 ridges of potatoes, worth £11:10:0. All worth £22:10:0.
"John POORE had taken from him for tithe, by said Walter PIGOTT and FITCHPATRICK and assistance - 13 carloads of bere, 15 carloads of oats, 2 carloads of pease, 1 carload of barley, 2 carloads of hay and 4 ridges of potatoes. All worth £7:11:0." 

1734:
"John RIDGWAY had taken from him for tithe by Thomas MADDOCKS and his assistance, servants to Joseph BALDWIN, Tithemonger under Emanuel PIGOTT, Tithemonger under John PIGOTT, Priest of the parish of Disart and Kilteel for one third part, Emanuel PIGOTT being Impropriator of ye other two thirds - 74 fleeces of wool, 28 lambs, worth £9:10:0. And by Walter PIGOTT and his assistance, Tithetaker under J. BALDWIN - 34 carloads of hay, 11 carloads of bere, 2 carloads of barley, and 2 ridges of potatoes, worth £6:11:0...
"John POORE had taken from him for tithe by P. FITZPATRICK, DUNN and LAWLER and their assistance - 21 carloads of bere, 7 carloads of wheat and 2 carloads of hay, worth £3:12:0. And by ye aforedsaid Walter PIGOTT and his assistance, Tithetaker under J. BALDWIN - 3 carloads of hay, 10 carloads of oats, 2 carloads of pease, and 5 ridges of potatoes, worth £2:13:0. All worth£ 7:15:0
Rev John PIGOTT of Loughrea died in 1734, and was buried at St Michan's Church, Dublin, 31 July 1734. On 27 September 1734, Henry WRIGHT was presented as Vicar of Dysart-Enos and Kilteale by Emanuel PIGOTT, and was instituted on 20 November (D.R.); son of William WRIGHT, Currier of Dublin, admitted T.C.D. 10 June 1707, B.A. 1711, M.A. 1714 [LESLIE]; he died on 17 Feb 1749 (LODGE's Obits). It appears that Rev Henry WRIGHT may have married John's widow Deborah PIGOTT (formerly FRENCH).
1735:
"John RIDGWAY had taken from him for tithe, by Thomas MADDOCKS and his assistants, Servants to Joseph BALDWIN, Tithemonger under Emanuel PIGOTT, Tithe-monger under John PIGOTT, Priest of the parish of Dysart and Kilteale for 1/3rd part, ye said Emanuel PIGOTT being Impropriator for ye other 2/3 parts - 8 carloads of bere, 2 carloads of wheat, 80 fleeces of wool and 32 lambs, worth £10:11:0. And by Walter PIGOTT and his assistants, Tithetaker under said BALDWIN - 25 carloads of hay, 17 carloads of bere, 7 carloads of wheat, 22 carloads of Oats, 8 carloads of pease, and 2 and a half ridges of potatoes, worth £10:17:0. All worth £21:8:0."

1737:
"John RIDGWAY had taken from him for tithe, by Cormack FENNELLY and his assistants, servants to Jos. BALDWIN, Tithetaker under Henry WRIGHT, Priest of the parish of Dysart and Kilteale for one third, and under Emanuel PIGOTT, Impropriator, of the other two thirds - 73 fleeces of wool and 18 lambs worth £7:15:0."

1742:
"John RIDGWAY had taken from him for tithe, by George FENNELLY and Cormack FENNELLY, servants to Joseph BALDWIN, Tithemonger under William PIGOTT, Priest of the parish of Dysart and Kilteale for one third, and under Emmanuel PIGOTT Impropriator, for the other two thirds - 19 fleeces of wool, 43 lambs, 7 carloads of bere, 6 carloads of barley, 10 carloads of wheat, 4 carloads of oats, 4 carloads of grey pease, and 22 carloads of hay, worth £17:15:0..."
Rev William PIGOTT was born in 1716, son of Rev John PIGOTT of Loughrea, County Galway, by his wife Deborah FRENCH; admitted T.C.D., 29 June 1732, B.A. 1736, M.A. 1739; he was recorded [LESLIE, page 210] as having been instituted as Rector of Dysart-enos on 27 February 1749 (which is 7 years after this entry), and is said [by LESLIE] to have resigned in 1772 in favour of his son Edward (he is nowhere mentioned in these Quaker records). Rev William PIGOTT was the Archdeacon of Clonfert; he died in 1790.
1745:
"John RIDGWAY had taken from him for tithe, by George FENELLY and his assistants, Servant to William MILES, Tithetaker under William PIGOTT, Priest of the Parishes of Dysart and Killteele, for one third, and to Joseph BALDWIN, Tithemonger under Emanuel PIGOTT, Impropriator, for the other two thirds - 28 carloads of bere, 16 carloads of barley, 15 carloads of oats, 16 carloads of wheat, 24 carloads of hay, 4 carloads of pease, 21 lambs and 73 fleeces of wool, worth £39:3:0.
"Michael BRUMSKILL had taken from him for tithe, by Michael CAHUL and Robert McDaniel, Tithetakers under said PIGOTT and BALDWIN - 8 carloads of oats 6 carloads of bere, 2 carloads of pease, 3 carloads of oats, 7 carloads of hay, 3 ridges of potatoes, 3 lambs and 8 fleeces of wool, worth £9:4:0.
"John THOMPSON (near Ballycarrol) had taken from him for tithe, by Patrick LAWLER and James MOLOY, Tithetakers under said PIGOTT and BALDWIN - 1 carload of bere, 10 carloads of wheat, 6 carloads of pease, 4 carloads of hay, 4 ridges of potatoes, 2 lambs and 5 fleeces of wool, worth £8:0:0."
In October 1745, Joseph and Jonathan BALDWIN's names appeared in a list of "Loyal Gentlemen of the Queen's County" published in the Dublin Journal [12 October] - being an affirmation of support for King George in his dealings with the rebellious Scottish Highlanders, which culminated in the great Battle on Drumossie Moor, known by the Scots as the "Forty-five," and better known to us all by the cottage which stood on that bleak spot near Inverness, named Culloden. The list of 84 names was subscribed on 10 October, at a general Quarter Sessions of the Peace, held in and for the County. Other names on the list of  "Loyal Gentlemen" included Thos PIGOTT and Thomas PIGOTT, probable grandsons of Thomas PIGOTT of Dysart (the earlier Impropriator, who died in 1702).
1749:
"Sarah RIDGWAY, Widow, had taken from her for tithe, by Francis HARVEY and Edward DOWDY, Tithetakers under William PIGOTT, Priest of the parish of Disart and Killteale, for one third, and by Joseph BALDWIN and assistants, Tithetaker under Emanuel PIGOTT, Impropriator, for the other two thirds - 30 carloads of hay, 12 carloads of wheat, 12 carloads of bere, 12 carloads of oats, 12 carloads of barley, 1 carload of pease, 40 fleeces of wool and 18 lambs, worth £24:2:0.
"Michael BRUMSKILL had taken from him for tithe, by John HIGGINS and assistants, Tithetaker under the said PIGOTT and BALDWIN - 6 carloads of bere, 4 carloads of wheat, 4 carloads of oats, 6 carloads of hay, and 2 ridges of potatoes, worth £7:4:0.
"John THOMPSON had taken from him for tithe, by said BALDWIN and Priest PIGOTT and their assistants - 6 carloads of hay, 10 carloads of wheat, 7 carloads of bere, 6 carloads of pease, 2 carloads of oats, 3 ridges of potatoes, 3 fleeces of wool and 2 lambs, worth £7:19:0."
On 15 June 1751, Emanuel PIGOTT made an Indented Deed of Lease (Memorial No 103507, Registry of Deeds, Dublin), for the Manor of Dysart, etc, including the Rectorial and Impropriate Tythes of Dysart, to Joseph BALDWIN of Dysart, for the term of lives of his three sons - John, Jonathan and Joseph BALDWIN. It is said that when the lease on Dysart expired, the BALDWINs moved to Derry Farm, on the same estate, then held by Lord CAREW (Robert Shapland CAREW, Junior, 1787-1838, the son of Robert Shapland CAREW, Senior, and his wife Anne PIGOTT, a daughter of Rev Richard PIGOTT of Cork, a younger son of Emanuel PIGOTT by his third wife Judith WARBURTON).
1754:
"Joshua RIDGWAY had taken from him for tithe, by James DUNN and Edward WARREN, Servants to Joseph BALDWIN, Tithetaker under William PIGOTT, Priest of the Parish of Disert and Kilteale, for one third, and under Emanuel PIGOTT, Impropriator, for two thirds - 1200 sheaves of barley, 900 sheaves of oats, 450 sheaves of wheat, 60 carloads of hay, 37 fleeces of wool and 2 lambs, worth 20:5:4."
In the 1760 Voters List for Maryborough was recorded "...John BALDWIN, of Disert, under Mr GILBERT's influence." [See "A Hand-list of Voters of Maryborough, 1760," by H.F. KEARNEY, Irish Historical Studies (joint journal of the Irish Historical Society and the Ulster Society for Irish Historical Studies), Volume IX, No. 33, March 1954, pages 53-82]. Also listed there were the following, perhaps related: "John BALDWIN, Larrigan, (under the influence of) Lord Mt Rath and a particular friend of Mr GILBERT. Robert BALDWIN, Coolkerry, (under the influence of) Mr Dawson chiefly. Robert BALDWIN, Doon, under the influence of his brother Thomas BALDWIN."
1763:
"John THOMPSON had taken from him for tithe, by Patrick LALOR and John FITZPATRICK, servants to John BALDWIN, Tithetaker under William PIGOTT, Priest of the parish of Dysart for one third, and under the Representatives of Immanuel PIGOTT, Impropriator for the other two thirds - 6 carload of hay, 10 carloads of wheat, 1 carload of bere, 4 carloads of oats, 2 ridges of potatoes, 3 fleeces of wool and 2 lambs, worth £6:5:0."
Emanuel PIGOTT died at Chetwynd, County Cork, on 30 June 1762. By his first wife Lucy ROGERS, he had an eldest son George PIGOTT (see next) who succeeded him.
1764:
"John BRUMSKILL had taken from him for tithe, by Edward DUNN and Edward DELANY, Tithe-takers under William PIGOTT, Priest of the parish of Disert for one third, and George BALDWIN, Tithetaker under George PIGOTT, Impropriator, for two thirds - 9 fleeces of wool, 3 lambs, 48 tale of wheat, 72 tale of bere, 60 tale of oats, 9 carloads of hay and 3 ridges of potatoes, worth £8:2:0."
In 1764, Helen PIGOTT died intestate, with Administration granted on 16 October to her husband; she was the wife of Thomas PIGOTT of Queen's County (born about 1725, son of Thomas PIGOTT, the eldest and litigant nephew of Robert PIGOTT, the former Impropriator, by his wife Mary WHEELER); it is stated that Helen was born a BALDWIN, and probably from Derry, Dysart or Summerhill, all in Queen's County [Notes and Queries, 10 Series, Volume ii, page 176 - in an article by William Jackson PIGOTT, a first cousin of my great-grandfather].
1770:
"John THOMPSON had taken from him for tithe, by John BALDWIN and assistants, Tithetaker under William PIGOTT, Priest of the parish of Dysart for one third part, and George PIGOTT, Impropriator for the other two thirds - 6 carloads of wheat, 4 carloads of oats and 6 carloads of hay, worth £4:6:0."
On 30 June 1772, LESLIE [page 210] records that Edward PIGOTT was presented to the Rectory of Dysart-Enos by Richard PIGOTT, D.D., of the City of Cork, "...vice William PIGOTT, resigned"; and was instituted on 4 Sep (D.R. and F.F.); he died in 1797. But his name is nowhere to be found in these Quaker records. George PIGOTT died a few days before 5 January 1773, aged about 63, and was succeeded by his eldest son Thomas, the future Baronet of Knapton (see next).
1778:
"Joseph THOMPSON had taken from him for tithe, by John BALDWIN and assistants, Tithetaker under William PIGOTT, Priest of the parish of Dysart for one third part and Thomas PIGOTT, Impropriator for two thirds - 5 carloads of hay, 2 carloads of barley, 9 carloads of bere, 5 carloads of oats, 3 fleeces of wool and 2 lambs, worth £6:11:11."

1779:
"Edward BUTLER had taken from him... priest of Maryborough...
"And by Richard ---, servant to John BALDWIN and assistants, tithe-monger under William PIGOTT, priest of Kiltale [Kilteale], seven carloads of wheat, nine carloads of oats, and four carloads of hay, all worth £5:10;0."

1815:
"John MILBURN, for a demand of 5:7:8, had taken... one heiffer worth £8:0:0...
"And had taken, under Thomas PIGOTT, priest of the parish of Rosenallis, for a demand of £1:18:0, one cow worth £4:0:0.
Warrants signed Richard CROASDAILE and John BALDWIN.
There are no further PIGOTT mentions after this last one dated 1815.
Of possible passing interest, a Rev John BALDWIN Senior was appointed Curate of Rosenallis parish in 1780, as successor to Rev Peter WESTENRA (he had been curate since 1766, and had married, as her 2nd husband, Elizabeth PIGOTT, the widow of Thomas BERNARD - she is believed to have been the daughter of Thomas PIGOTT, of Queen's County, and Mary WHEELER - see 1764 above).

Further, there was a William Dowdall PIGOTT, who is said to have been born at Dysart on 29 September 1790; his parentage is uncertain, but after a stop-start career as a Clerk in the Ordnance Department of the Army, in Ireland and in Malta, he retired to Ontario, in Canada; he named his 2nd son Edward David Baldwin PIGOTT - so it is just possible that William's mother may have been a BALDWIN; further, he had named his first-born son Edward, and he died shortly before the second Edward was born, suggesting a possibility that William's father was named Edward - perhaps the son of Rev William PIGOTT, Archdeacon of Clonfert, the Priest of Dysart (as listed above), who was said to have resigned the Vicarage of Disert in 1772, in favour of this son, Rev Edward PIGOTT (although this is not supported in the above record).



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