Monday, May 26, 2008

Another Italian in Tudor London: Giovanni Battista CASTIGLIONE



[Giovanni Battista CASTIGLIONE's tomb inside St Mary's Church, Spene. Photographed in 2010.]

An important & influential figure entered the life of Elizabeth TUDOR in late 1544. She was aged 11; he 29. He was her Master of the Italian Tongue, & her Tutor in the Italic Script; and he had one or two other tricks up his Italianate sleeve.

WYATT has noted that:
"Elizabeth had learned to speak and write Italian at an early age, & her fluency in a number of languages was considered remarkable by those who witnessed her linguistic skills in action. Her polyglotism is all the more extraordinary given that she never set foot on the European continent. Her preference for Italian & the prominence she accorded Italian culture can to a high degree be ascribed to the close presence in her life of Giovanni Battista CASTIGLIONE...
"[He] was among the the few who would have shared the young Elizabeth's life on such intimate terms (certainly no other foreigner did) and it is a sign of her dedication to him that the culture he opened to her would come to play such a significant role in the era over which she presided."
[Michael WYATT, "The Italian Encounter with Tudor England: A Cultural Politics of Translation," Cambridge University Press, 2005, p.125.]

GIOVANNI'S EARLY LIFE.

Born into a semi-aristocratic Mantuan family, albeit in Gassino-Torinese, Piemonte, ca 1515-16, Giovanni Battista CASTIGLIONE was the son of Piero CASTIGLIONE, a Captain in the Army of Maximillian, Holy Roman Emperor. His mother has yet to be identified, & it is quite possible that he was illegitimate.

Giovanni was educated in the courtly skills that were part of his family heritage (his relation was Baldassare CASTIGLIONE, author of "Il Libro del Courtigiano," & in 1506 an ambassador to the Court of Henry VII to receive for his master, the Duke of Urbino, an Order of the Garter).
Giovanni joined the Army, in the service of another Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V. He was probably in the Regiment of another relation, Ferrante GONZAGA, Capitaine-Generale to Charles V, at the Siege of Landrècies, France, in Sep 1543, or that of Alexander GONZAGA (named below). The siege was a stratagem to flush out the French King, François I, by making him try to break the seige, & so engage him in battle.
There they collaborated with an English Army under the command of Sir Henry WALLOP & Thomas SEYMOUR (who later, as the Lord Admiral, sought to insinuate himself into Elizabeth TUDOR's graces, but had to settle instead with her step-mother, Henry's widow, Katherine PARR).
WALLOP & SEYMOUR both made written observations about their European counterparts; WALLOP, in a letter from Landrecies to the Council, wrote:
"... And out of Italy the Duke of Mantua's bastard, Alex. GONZAGA, offered to serve with 4,000 Italian footmen, and 300 mounted harquebuziers, upon two months warning. Has made a book of these names. 'As for the Italians, it is evil meddling with them, having had good experience this year to be either too wise or too false'."
[Calendar of State Papers, 35 Henry VIII, 1543, fo.385, p.210.]

I would be very surprised if CASTIGLIONE's name was not in WALLOP's book, & perhaps, despite WALLOP's mistrust of Italians, near the top of the list.

GIOVANNI GOES TO ENGLAND.

In the following year, 1544, Henry VIII personally attended his troops outside Boulogne, then under English siege.

CASTIGLIONE also presented himself at Boulogne after wintering in Calais, centre of the then English Pale in France. Recommended by those about the King, Giovanni was given letters of introduction to the Council in London, where he was attached to the court of Henry's younger daughter Elizabeth, the BOLEYN daughter. The nod of approval, it appears, may have come from the King himself. The date was about October 1544.
Some of this detail is gleaned from an informed, but perhaps somewhat biased family source - Giovanni's eldest son & heir, Sir Francis CASTILLION, wrote a memorial, dated 24 Sep 1631, which he intended to inscribe on his father's sepulchre in Spene Church, near Newbury, in Berkshire (see full version further below):
"In this monument resteth Baptist CASTILION, Esq're, who was in the Warres at Landerse; then served Henry VIII at Bullen, captayne of foot. Being there recommended by some about the King, was sent over with letters, unto the Private Counsil in England; to preferre him unto the Lady Elizabeth's Grace, daughter unto King Henry the 8th; chiefly to read the Italian, being then 13 years of age..."
[Francis CASTILLION, his Letterbook, Osborne Shelves, Beinecke Rare Book & MS Library, Yale University.]

Given that Elizabeth, who had actually only just turned 11, was then only 3rd in line of succession, & that she had a brother who might reasonably be expected, despite early signs of a "weakling" disposition, to produce heirs of his own, the posting cannot have filled Giovanni with any great prospects for advancement. On my presumption that it was a move he probably sought & volunteered for, it suggests he may have been quite keen to escape Europe, & perhaps more particularly the Catholic country of his birth. Some historians have indeed assumed that he was a Protestant.

But events were to transpire in such a way that saw Giovanni become a close court insider, & eventually an established member of the English propertied class; and by the time of his death, in 1598, he had become one of the oldest & longest serving of all of Queen Elizabeth's personal attendants.

Information concerning Giovanni's movements before his marriage in 1558 are hard to come by. It is likely that he will not have strayed too far from the side of his mistress, Elizabeth. One of the cards up his sleeve was his military experience, and if, as seems likely (and mooted by some historians as a fact), he was also charged with Elizabeth's personal safety as one of her personal body-guards, then that proximity will have been almost absolute.
And if so, his movements will be hers, and hers are well documented.

These can be summarised within three divisions of time - the remainder of her father Henry's reign, which ended in Jan 1547; the reign of her younger & Protestant half-brother Edward, which ended in Jul 1553; & the reign of their elder & Catholic half-sister Mary, which ended in Nov 1558, some months after Giovanni's marriage.

GIOVANNI, UNDER HENRY VIII.

Before Giovanni's arrival from Boulogne in 1544, Elizabeth had offended her father, yet again, & was banished from his presence; but in the following year, she was placed under the direct charge of her step-mother, Queen Catherine PARR, who turned the King around, allowing Elizabeth to be brought back to Court.
Over the next 2 years, as was the habit of the Royal Courts, for one reason amongst others, to keep one breath of fresh air ahead of the mouldering latrines, Elizabeth was moved from Palace to Palace.
HIBBERT noted that Elizabeth's own household:
"... moved at irregular intervals from Windsor to Enfield, from Richmond to Greenwich, Hatfield to Eltham, Hunsdon to Rickmansworth, Ashridge to Havering..."
[Christopher HIBBERT. "The Virgin Queen - The Personal History of Elizabeth I." Viking Press, 1990, p.27.]

GIOVANNI, UNDER EDWARD VI.

Edward was fetched from Ashford to be with Elizabeth at Enfield where she was residing, when they were there given the news of their father's death. She continued in the care of her step-mother, in the Queen Dowager's house in Chelsea.
Thereafter, at Hanworth, Elizabeth suffered the previously mentioned advances of the Lord Admiral, Thomas SEYMOUR. She left this household in May 1548, citing a disagreement with her step-mother, but it seems that Catherine, by now 6 months pregnant to SEYMOUR, to whom she had been secretly married, had caught Elizabeth in SEYMOUR's embrace, & was probably protecting both her & her step-daughter's interests. Elizabeth was sent to Cheshunt under the watchful eye of Sir Anthony DENNY.
And in Jan 1549, SEYMOUR was arrested, & imprisoned, along with 3 of Elizabeth's personal staff, including Kath ASHLEY & Thomas PARRY. I do not yet know whether CASTIGLIONE was the 3rd (see below), but it is a possibility. ASHLEY acknowledged "familiarities" between SEYMOUR & Elizabeth. SEYMOUR, convicted on a charge of Treason, was executed.

By Sep 1549, Elizabeth was still at Hatford, when PARRY informed CECIL that Elizabeth "... will not yet remove to Ashridge."
And on 17 Mar 1550, Elizabeth visited her brother in London:
"... with a large retinue. Her entourage on outings often numbered nearly 200. She was most honourably received by the Council in Jan 1551."
[Christopher HIBBERT. Op. Cit., p.35.]

GIOVANNI, UNDER MARY & PHILIP.

On the death of Edward, the Dukes of Suffolk & Northumberland attempted to forestall the accession of the Catholic Mary by proclaiming as Queen the Lady Jane GREY, their respective daughter & daughter-in-law. Their strategy to bring Elizabeth & Mary together in London, where they might be more easily "managed," failed, presumably as the result of secret messengers dispatched by CECIL. Elizabeth locked herself in her apartments at Hatfield; Mary decamped to the fortified stronghold of Framlingham Castle, where thousands of her supporters gathered. The conspiracy collapsed, & 8 days after Edward's death, Mary was proclaimed Queen.

Elizabeth, at her favourite residence at Hatfield, went up to London after the defeat of Northumberland's coup, & after spending several nights at Somerset House, then Wanstead House, near Aldgate, made the ceremonious entry into London with her sister on 3 Aug 1553. She also played a part in the Coronation ceremonies on 1 Oct.
But thereafter, & at her own request after being, by Mary's decree, upstaged in rank by the Duchess of Suffolk & the Countess of Lennox, Elizabeth removed to Ashridge.

After the failure of yet another attempt on Mary's throne in Jan-Feb 1554, known as the WYATT rebellion, the Council was advised that Elizabeth was implicated, with the French King's Ambassador NOAILLES, concerning opposition to the impending marriage of Mary to Philip of Spain - the "Spanish Marriage" widely but privately feared & condemned in England. WYATT himself was probably behind the message sent to Elizabeth at Ashridge, urging her to move to Donnington & fortify it. Sensing the need for caution, she refused to see the messenger & had him sent away.
Before WYATT was defeated, Elizabeth was summonsed to London. Once again, sensing that great caution was needed, & fearing for her safety in London, she pleaded illness; whereupon her great-uncle Lord William HOWARD & two of the Queen's doctors were sent to Ashridge to investigate; she was brought to London in slow stages, taking 5 days to reach Highgate, & entered London streets on 23 Feb. After being confined in Whitehall Palace for 3 weeks, & denied access to Mary, she made her indignant entry through Traitor's Gate into the Tower of London on 17 Mar. CASTIGLIONE may have been one of the two male servants allowed to accompany her there, along with 6 of her ladies, although it seems more likely he remained outside, & was then arrested on suspicion of carrying Elizabeth's letters from within (see below).

On 19 May 1554, Elizabeth was released into the care of Sir Henry BEDINGFIELD, at Woodstock, near Oxford; the route there was by boat to Richmond, then by horse & litter through Windsor, West Wycombe & Rycote. There she complained bitterly about the quality of her lodgings, in the gate-house, but was allowed to re-assemble her household, despite careful screening at which she further complained. And there she remained until Apr 1555.

In the meantime, Mary had married Philip in Jul 1554; and she had begun burning Protestants in Feb 1555 - the number eventually totalled nearly 300, including bishops, clerics, artisans & agricultural labourers, and amongst which number some 60 were women - and these burnings revulsed the general population, with the result that Catholicism itself became hated in England.

Elizabeth was then returned to Hampton Court, still under close confinement (and in the gate-house), to meet her new brother-in-law, Philip of Spain.
In Oct 1555, she & her household were again moved, to Hatfield, under the care of her "gaoler," Sir Thomas POPE, with the rules governing her freedom eased at the request of Philip, as he headed off to his European Kingdoms, perhaps aware his wife was ailing & needing to keep Elizabeth on-side.

POPE's controls were further eased, & Elizabeth was returned to Court in time for Philip's return to London in late Mar 1557. Mary visited her at Hatfield in April. Later that month, another feeble attempt on Mary's throne failed, at Scarborough Castle, & the perpetrator, named STAFFORD, was executed. Because of the rebellion's origins in France, Mary declared war, only to lose Calais, which had been under English control for over 2 centuries!

Elizabeth was visiting Brockett Hall, Herts, 8 Nov 1558, when Mary, almost at the last hour, finally signified that Elizabeth should succeed her. Mary died on 17 Nov, & Elizabeth went up to London, from Hatfield, on 23 Nov.

GIOVANNI IN THE TOWER OF LONDON.

Very little mention is made in the published histories of Giovanni CASTIGLIONE during this period. The sole exception is the several times he was, as the Italian Master, incarcerated in the Tower of London.
And even here, concerning the actual number of times that Giovanni was sent to the Tower, most modern historians seem to know less than the then Venetian Ambassador in London, Giovanni MICHIEL, who on 2 Jun 1556, wrote to his Doge:
"The number of persons imprisoned increases daily...Two days later Mistress ASHLEY was taken thither, she being the chief governess of Milady Elizabeth, the arrest, together with that of three other domestics, having taken place in the country, 18 miles hence, even in the aforesaid Milady's house, & where at present she resides, which has caused great general vexation. Amongst the domestics is a certain Battista, an Italian, native of Piedmont, the Signora's master for the Italian tongue, & who has twice before been imprisoned on her account, he being much suspected on the score of religion, as is likewise the governess and all the others. I am told that they have already confessed to having known about the conspiracy; so not having revealed it, were there nothing else against them, they may probably not quit the Tower alive..."
[Calendar of State Papers, Venetian Series.]

Well, we do have reason to be thankful that he got the last bit wrong! And we will deal with this, the third incarceration, a little further on.

Giovanni's three incarcerations in the Tower become apparent from other published references.
The first, & least publicised, was in 1554, probably as a result of the WYATT Rebellion. Alison WEIR ["Children of England: The Heirs of King Henry VIII," Jonathan Cape, London, 1996] wrote that CASTIGLIONE had been imprisoned in 1554 on suspicion of having distributed subversive literature, although she may have confused the cause with another charge to follow about a year later.
Giovanni's descendants had a different, & perhaps more appropriate view as to the reason. His son & heir, Sir Frances CASTILLION, wrote in 1631:
"... But in the 1st of Queene Mary, for trusty service then done by him, touching her Grace's safety, then a Prisoner, he was committed close prisoner to the Tower of London. And being twice out of prison a few weeks, the lady Elizabeth writ letters secretly to him, all of her owne hand; to goe unto the French Ambassador, and King Phillip's confessor, at Whitehall; with other her letters, late in the night, about her Grace's troubles, whereof he was strictly examined in the Tower, by Bishop GARDENER, then Lord Chancellor - Suffered on the Racke to confesse his trust therein, being Lame thereof: but he would make no confession, whereby the Lady Elizabeth may come in danger of being wrongfully accused about WIATT's Rebellion, as the chronicles maketh mention..."
[Francis CASTILLION. His Letterbook, Op. Cit.]

The 1st of Queen Mary's reign, was, of course, 1553-54, so the timing is right for the WYATT Rebellion. But we are not dealing just with subversive literature here.

Anne SOMERSET ["Elizabeth I," Wedenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1991] noted a similar charge concerning subversive literature attached to his imprisonment in May 1555. In this case, MICHIEL also proved to have been well informed, writing on 13 May 1555:
"Certain knaves in this country endeavour daily to disturb the peace & quiet & present state of the kingdom, so as if possible to induce some novelty & insurrection, there having been privily circulated of late throughout the city a 'Dialogue,' written & printed in English, full of seditious & scandalous things against the religion & government, as also against the council, the Parliament, & chiefly against their Majesties' persons; & although all diligence has been used for the discovery of the authors, no light on the subject has yet been obtained, save that an Italian has been put in the Tower, he being a master for teaching the Italian tongue to Milady Elizabeth, some suspicion having been apparently entertained of him..."
[Calender of State Papers, Venetian Series.]

His third incarceration was in mid 1556, when his interrogatories, with answers attached, were submitted to Council in a report dated 31 May 1556:
"Question: What bills or letters have you since Christmas written to any person now beyond the seas & to what effect? 
Answer: To Mistress WILLIAMS, concerning money I sent for her.
"Q: From what persons now beyond the seas have you received any letter or bill since Christmas, of what effect, & by whom you received or sent any? 
A: Of the same to the same effect, I received & sent by a young man I know not.
"Q: How often have you been to London since Christmas, & what places did you most resort to? 
A: Once. Where I resorted I remember not well; but to a milliner's shop where I bought a cap, gloves, a girdle, [to] a hosier & a bookbinder; & in Marke lane to a friend, Mistress WATTSON, to look how she did, & in that lane to Mistress BURNELL, where I lay all night; in Seething lane to my countryman John d'ANTONIO to buy strings for my lady grace's lute. What communications I cannot well tell.
"Q: Whether & how often you have resorted to the French & the Venetian ambassadors, by night or day, since Christmas, upon what occasion, & what talk you had with them? How often have you sent to any of their secretaries or clerks, & what messages or letters have you received from them, by whom, & to what effect? 
A: I never resorted to or spoke to any of them.
"I forgot in (3) I was with Laurence SHEREVE the grocer, to whom I paid money I owed him for one of my fellows; also I was in Bucklersbury to buy a box of turpentine for the disease of my back; also I was with a silk-woman at Ludgate where I bought black lace to edge a cloak, & at St Martin's [le Grande] for two dozen buttons; in Cheapside for sarsanet; in another place for points; at Foster lane end I bought two pairs of wandone gloves. I had no talk but about my business."
[Calendar of State Papers, Mary I, Domestic Series, 1556; reprinted 1998.]

I am entirely unclear from any published source as to what this interrogation was actually about.
This extract does reveal, however, that it was an earlier incarceration that had led to his "disease" of the back, if that disease was, as is believed, induced by his experience on the Rack. And here too, was another ace up his sleeve - a knack with musical instruments - and I daresay he was also skilled in the Italian style of dancing, said to have been high, which was a favourite style with Elizabeth. But that was for a happier time.

It was during this last period of incarceration that Giovanni was confined in the Broad Arrow Tower, where, in an upper room, immediately to the left of the fireplace, he left his mark in the stonework, in a graffito still clearly visible today:
"Inqueste vanita ch'ogn'un desia noponer tua speranza ma sicuro scorgi il camin ch'al sommo ben t'ivia - Giovanni Battista CASTIGLIONE - 1556."


This has been translated as:
"Do not rest your hopes on these vain things that all men desire, but follow the sure road which leads to the highest good."
[Tower Inscriptions, The Royal Armouries Library, Tower of London, p. 17.]

There are several other references to Giovanni in the historical record for this period.
On 27 Jun 1548, the Privy Council (Acts) warranted Sir Wimund CAREWE "to be delivered to Thomas SMYTH, Clerk of the Council, £5 given to John BAPTISTA, Italian, for rewarde..." Giovanni was several times incorrectly referred to in State Paper MSs as Giovanni BATTISTA, "Castilian."
And on 29 Oct 1550, John Baptist CASTIGLIONE was granted his Patent of Denization "...(complete)... by the Lord Chancellor, by virtue of the King's warrant, for nil payable, by mandate of the Lord Chancellor."

Giovanni Battista CASTIGLIONE was married in London in Feb 1558, to the widow Margarett ALLEN. See below
From this point onwards, & the more so after Queen Mary's death, 9 months later, CASTIGLIONE's situation evidently became more calm, probably more secure, & certainly more prosperous.

GIOVANNI, UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH.

On Elizabeth's accession, he was appointed a Groom of her Privy Chamber. His proximity to her court in the previous 14 years made him an obvious contender for the top of the pecking order, if there was one, amongst grooms, which numbered six at her coronation, & doubled to 12 by 1580.

At least one descendant has pondered on Giovanni's appointment as perhaps being a move by Elizabeth to keep him on the inside, lest his knowledge of her affairs might prove a problem if he was on the outer. But I suspect her trust in him went well beyond that, & not without good reason.

As to his exact whereabouts, the official records remain mostly silent. That he had two children baptised at the Parish Church of St-Martin-in-the-Fields in May 1561 & Jan 1563 suggests their residence was towards that end of the Palace complex at Whitehall. By Feb 1765, they appear to have moved, as their next child, & subsequent children, were all baptised at St Margaret's, Westminster.

In 1583, we find John Baptist CASTILLION, Esq, of Westminster, in the registration of his son Valentine's admission to the Middle Temple. And in Nov 1587, there is reference, in the Calendar of Patent Rolls, to "... the now dwelling house of the said John BAPTISTE, being in Kinge's street in the City of Westminster."

King's St passed through the gates of Whitehall Palace; these gates, built in 1532, & demolished in 1723, stood south of the Holbein Gate.

And Giovanni is occasionally referred to in State Papers by this alias, at least once being recorded to as John BAPTIST, "Castilian."

On 28 Jan 1559, Giovanni was granted for life, for his services, the offices of Bailiff, Woodward & Steward of the Manor of Benham Valence, Co Berks, & keeper of the Park, & keeper of the mansion, with wages of 40s. a year for the offices & 2d. a day each for the keeperships.

Six years later, on 13 Jan 1565, Giovanni was granted the Manor itself:
"... the Manor of Benham Valence, late parcel of the lands granted to the Queen for her maintenance before her accession & formerly of William ESSEX, Knt, lands, etc... & all other appurtenances of the said Manor in Spene, Benham Valence & Westbroke, Co Berks. To hold as the Manor of Estgrenewiche in socage & by a yearly rent of £14 3s. & 2d. For CASTIGLIONE's service. By Q." [Calendar of Patent Rolls, Elizabeth.]

[St Mary's Church, Spene, near Newbury Berkshire.]

Giovanni appears to have settled upon this establishment as his principal residence outside of London, & was to be buried near there 33 years later.


[Notice on the inside of St Mary's Church, Spene.]

On 15 Sep 1569, Giovanni was granted the:
"Lease, for 21 years, of the Manor of Snave & all the lands, courts, advowsons & other appurtenances thereof, of Snave, Langbete, Warehome, Ivechurch & elsewhere, in County Kent, late of Thomas WYATT, Knt, attainted, with reservations, from the termination of a grant thereof by Patent 27 Feb ii & iii Ph & Mary to Anne, Duchess of Somerset; yearly rent £27 15s. & 6d. For his services. By P.S."
[C.P.R., Elizabeth.]

In Apr 1572, he was additionally granted the Lease of the Manor of Porlocke, Co Somerset (late the Duke of Suffolk's, attainted for treason), & lands in Shete in Petersfield, Co Southampton, for 31 years, at a yearly rental of 14s., again for his service.

HIBBERT noted that Elizabeth's household staff settled down to:
"... no more than 3 gentlemen of the Privy Chamber, less than 10 grooms, 7 married ladies of high rank, 4 of lesser rank known as the Queen's Women, & 6 maids in waiting, usually girls."

He also observed that Elizabeth kept several of the estates forfeited by traitors, and:
"... bestowing others on courtiers whom she found more accommodating & agreeable." [Christopher HIBBERT. "Virgin Queen." Op.Cit. Pp. 104 & 118.]

SOME "EXTRA-CURRICULAR" ACTIVITIES.

In Mar 1565, CASTIGLIONE was involved in securing armaments for an English Army under Robert DUDLEY, Earl of Leicester. Thomaso BARONCELLI wrote to DUDLEY from Antwerp concerning 2 suits of armour for a man & one for a horse, fashioned by Helisio LIBERTES (an accomplished Florentine engraver) which he sends with LIBERTES, & a dagger of "... exquisite workmanship worthy of the Queen's inspection. [BARONCELLI] has been informed by Gio. Baptista CASTIGLIONE of her wishes in these matters... [LIBERTES has brought over] some drawings as was intimated by the writer, from the Earl through Giobattista CASTIGLIONE," & the Earl's arquebus.

By Jan 1566, some 600 acres of riverside land in the Parishes of Erith & Plumstead, Co Kent, had been reclaimed from inundation by the River Thames. The work, under license of Queen Elizabeth dated 10 Mar 1562, guaranteed rights to half the reclaimed lands to Jacopo ACONCIO, an Italian jurist, philosopher & engineer, who arrived in England in 1559, & began reclamation work in Jun 1562. Some of the reclaimed lands were lost, whence ACONCIO entered into a partnership with G.B. CASTIGLIONE & some English tradesmen to make further efforts. Apparently Giovanni & some London businessmen guaranteed losses up to £5,000, which money was not recouped for another 8 years.

ACONCIO & CASTIGLIONE were said to have been in accord regarding questions of religion - in other words, refugees "conscientae causa" - or Protestants. ACONCIO died about 1567, leaving his manuscripts in Giovanni's care - and he published one of them, "Una essortazione al timor di Dio," in 1580, with a dedication to Queen Elizabeth.

On 26 May 1568, Giovanni wrote from Westminster to Lord COBHAM, concerning a proposed match between Queen Elizabeth & Charles, Archduke of the Holy Roman Empire:
"...on Wednesday evening after prayers, Mr NORTH had a long conversation with Her Majesty, who called him into the private chamber issuing out of the oratory. Her Majesty, after having seen the likeness of the Archduke, gave orders to have it put into a frame, which was done, but as yet she does not wish it to be seen, 'fearing no doubt lest it's beauty should dazzle the minds & sight of others'."
 [Salisbury MSs, Part I, p.356, #1173.]

This was undoubtedly connected with several of CECIL's letters to COBHAM (then Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports), of similar date, one mentioning a letter to COBHAM which CECIL had opened after being "... moved thereto by Mr BAPTIST"; the other referring to the possibility of Mr BAPTISTA being "... with you shortly, to pass secretly over" perhaps on his way to Europe in connection with this proposed marriage.

As with all the other prospective suits for Elizabeth's hand, this also came to nothing.

THE DISPUTED RECTORY MANOR OF GODALMING.

In Nov 1568, Giovanni is noted in connection with the Advowson of the Rectory of Godalming, Co Surrey, with an annuity arising from it of £40 a year, & of which:
"... he had a demise for a term of years from the Dean of Salisbury." 
[COCKAYNE. "Pedigree of CASTILLION." The Genealogist, N.S. Vol XVII, London, 1901. P.202.]

However, this arrangement may have gone back some years earlier - Percy WOODS, in his article "The Parsonage, or Rectory Manor of Godalming, &c," published in 1909 in Vol.XXII of the Surrey Archaeological Collection, wrote as follows:
"...the Parsonage must have come into the possession of one John Baptist CASTILLION, who was the Lord of the Rectory Manor at least as early as 1576, and who had obtained a lease from Dean VANNES, dated 26 Jun 1561, for 61 years commencing at the Lady day next after the determination of the previous leases."
The Dean who granted CASTILLION the lease was Peter VANNES, a former Latin Secretary to Henry VIII, and was well enough known to CASTILLION's very recently deceased father-in-law, Bartholomew COMPAGNI, who named VANNES in his will.

But there is some lack of clarity about the actual arrangements of this lease - firstly the status of the "previous leases" made it difficult to know when the term of VANNES's lease actually commenced - and it appears that there may have been two separate "ecclesiastical" dwellings in Godalming, the Rectory house and the Parsonage house, the latter probably the older of the two, and was "...a small building used sometimes as a dwelling house and sometimes to lay corn in."
It appears this latter one was the subject of CASTILLION's lease, and that he probably demolished it, and built a new one on the same site, north of the Godalming churchyard, on the southern bank of the River Wye, notwithstanding the possibility that his lease term may not then have actually commenced.
In 1578, a dispute arose after the appointment of a new Rector, Francis TAYLOR (instituted on 13 Sep 1578), & the availability of the Rectory house as a residence for him, it still being occupied by Richard SMITH, the former vicar GRAFTON's man (Robert GRAFTON had just been deprived of the vicarage).
TAYLOR, a graduate of Trinity College, Cambridge (B.A. 1567, M.A. 1570), had been Master of Guildford Grammar School from 1570 until his appointment at Godalming; he died in 1619.
The erstwhile "patron" of the living, Sir William MORE, of Loseley, Surrey, was also involved in the dispute.

(John) Baptiste CASTILLION, at Westminster, wrote to MORE on 11 Sep 1578, the letter being abstracted by the Historical Manuscripts Commission [Appendix to the 7th Report, 1879,  pp.631-2] as follows:
"He sends his signed presentation of Mr TAYLOR to the living of Godalming at MORE's request and trusts that '...by his Godly preaching he shall do the town much good.' The presentation is not to be '...prejudicial to the right I have to the house where now the vicar doth dwell' and to the tithes, which right CASTILLION means to prove at law unless the vicar demonstrates his title."

CASTILLION, at the Court, wrote again to MORE on 22 Oct 1578 [HMC, App, p.632b]:
"The Dean [of Salisbury] '...upon payment of his rent for Godalming' requested of CASTILLION that he should have the presentation of the vicarage. CASTILLION asked for more time to consider and now '...cannot but marvel at this kind of dealing.' CASTILLION, having presented Mr TAYLOR to the vicarage of Godalming at MORE's request, hopes that the matter can be settled so that TAYLOR is not disturbed, but his own title under his lease is acknowledged. He encloses a letter for the Dean and hopes the latter will proceed no further, but wait for CASTILLION's reply."
CASTILLION, again at Court, wrote further to MORE, on 24 Oct 1578:
"... touching his claim to the rectory house at Godalming, to the vicarage of which parish he has appointed Mr TAYLOR. '...Now for that I understand Mr TAYLOR is not resident,' says Mr CASTILLION, '...at Godalming for lack of a house, I will be contented to lend him so much of that I have of Mr SMYTH as shall serve his turn for the time... As my mind is not to offer Mr TAYLOR or to any man else any wrong, so I hope that my Lord [Bishop] WINCHESTER nor the Deane of Sarum, nor the town of Godalming will offer me none also, but if they do, I must defend myself as well as I can'."
What appears to be a second abstraction of this letter, with slightly different emphases, but dated 24 Nov 1578, is held at the Surrey History Centre [TNA Ref - 6729/7/55/1], as follows:
"He has received MORE's letter, but feels he cannot yet answer it as his 'learned counsel' has left London. Understanding that Mr TAYLOR is not resident at Godalming because he lacks a house, CASTILLION will lend him part of the house he has '...of Mr SMYTH.' If TAYLOR can prove his right to the [vicarage] at law, CASTILLION will gladly give it up. He wishes to do TAYLOR no wrong, but must defend himself against the Bishop of Winchester, Dean of Salisbury and town of Godalming if attacked."

CASTILLION wrote, again from the Court, again to MORE, on 26 Nov 1578 [6729/7/55/2]:
"He thanks MORE for his offer to show him a rental, but does not believe that '...a rental can be a sufficient proof that the house doth appertain to your vicar.' However he will concede if the vicar can prove his title at law. He offers the vicar a part of Mr SMYTH's house so he can reside in Godalming and asks MORE to assure TAYLOR [the vicar] that CASTILLION will answer all the legal costs in the dispute with the Dean [of Salisbury] so TAYLOR can '...follow earnestly his vocation.' He chides the townspeople of Godalming for meddling in the case. He hears that Richard SMYTH is occupying the house 'for Mr GRAFTON' [the former vicar] and asks MORE to get him removed."

The dispute did not go away in a hurry - Sir William MORE, at Loseley, wrote to Charles, Lord HOWARD of Effingham, Lord Chamberlain & Privy Councillor [6729/7/73], on 2 Mar 1584:
"He reports that he has interviewed the present and past Churchwardens and others of Godalming who had complained to the justices of the '...lewd behaviour of Simon BOYES, Mr Baptiste's man' [Baptiste CASTILLION]. They have confirmed the accusations. Also present was the vicar Mr TAYLOR '...a very grave man, a good preacher, against whom the said Simon had very naughtily and disorderly used himself.' BOYES had confessed, '...acknowledged the words spoken by his master, but said they slipped out of his mouth unawares.' and admitted that he had falsely accused Robert BRIDGER and CHENNELL of being '...the procurer and deviser of the said information against him.' The accusers are happy to let the matter drop if BOYES does not offend again before the next Quarter Sessions..."
CASTILLION evidently retained the Advowson, which he is said to have granted to his 3rd son Peter on the occasion of his marriage, in about 1595, to Thomasine PEYTON, probably just a year or two before his death.
It was eventually the inheritance of Giovanni's Irish-born grandson, Peyton CASTILLION (see his will abstract, below), but it appears that Thomasin exercised some rights as the widow, and her longevity may have denied Peyton access to the benefits.

However, there appears to have been some legal action taken by Thomasin CASTILLION alias PEYTON, and her 2nd husband Sir Robert PIGOTT, against her former brothers-in-law Sir Francis & Valentine CASTILLION, pertaining to the "Rectory & Tithes of Godalming, Surrey," with a date range of 1602-25 [TNA Ref - C 2/Jas1/P5/17].
A copy of this archived document has been requested, and is eagerly awaited.

HIS FINAL YEARS.
On 15 May 1583, John Baptist CASTILLION Esq, & his wife Margaret, "...widow of Lazarus ALLEN," were involved in a legal disputation against Sir Christopher ALLEN & Roger GRAVES, "... concerning an annuity of £20 out of the estates in Lincs, Notts, Yorks, Kent & Herefords, of Sir John ALLEN, late Alderman of London."
[Index to the Supreme Court of Judicature, Chancery Division, Six Clerks Office & Successors Decree Rolls, First Division, xxv Elizabeth.]
Sir Christopher was the elder brother of Lazarus ALLEN, both illegitimate sons of Sir John ALLEN, Mercer & Alderman of London, P.C., & twice Lord Mayor of London.

In Jan 1593, Giovanni was involved in matters relating to the estate of John Baptist PIATINARI, a native of Pinaro in Piemonte, Physician, who died suddenly in London ca 1590, leaving goods to the value of £1,500-1,600. Another Italian, & a stranger to the deceased, had siezed the goods, but later, in remorse, had issued a decree calling on PIATINARIs' relations & such to make their claims upon the property. CASTIGLIONE, who "...has been a true friend to his compatriots in England, then sent to Calais to see if Anthoine JACOMEL, President of Calais, were still alive, who was cousin german to the deceased; who at once sent CASTILLION a proxy to act for him on behalf of his children the heirs."

John Baptist CASTILIAN, "Esq, a Gentleman of the Queen's Privy Chamber," was admitted to the Middle Temple, 12 Aug 1595. But it appears unlikely that he was ever a Gentleman of that Chamber.

Giovanni's widow Margaret continued to live in or near Benham Valence, Berkshire, after his death; her will was dated Friday 22 Jun 1621, of Speen, Widow, & proved in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury, 2 Nov 1622 (103 Saville), by her grandson Peyton CASTILLION, her sole executor, to whom "... all my stock & goods without the house," the rest "... my household stuffe" going to her son Sir Frances, with whom she appears to have had an estrangement, the second witness being her son Douglas CASTILLION.

GIOVANNI MARRIES & HAS A FAMILY.

Giovanni Battista CASTIGLIONE was married in the Parish Church of St Christopher-le-Stocks, London, by Andrew ARNEM, Rector, on 11 Feb 1558, to Margarett ALLEN. She was the widow of Lazarus ALLEN (natural son of Sir John ALLEN, P.C., Lord Mayor of London, & after his death, ward of Sir William PAGET, Principal Secretary to Henry VIII), & the natural daughter of Florentine Merchant Stranger in London, Bartolomeo COMPAGNI (see another posting in this blog).

Giovanni & Margaret had issue:

1. Fraunciscus CASTELLION, bt St Martin-in-the-Fields, London, 27 May 1561; served in the retinue of Robert DUDLEY, Queen Elizabeth's much favoured Earl of Leicester; a member of DUDLEY's household in the Netherlands; led DUDLEY's horse at his funeral:


Francis was heir to his father's estate of Benham Valence, Berks; M.A., Magdalen College, Oxon, 1581; M.P. for Great Bedwin; created Knight at Charterhouse, 11 May 1603; admitted to the Middle Temple, 14 Aug 1606; he married 1stly, at Norton, Hampshire, 16 Sep 1595, Elizabeth ST JOHN (daughter of William ST JOHN of Farley, Southampton, by Barbara GORE); she died in childbirth, 28 Dec 1603, aged 27.


[Inscription on the wall inside St Mary's Church, Spene.]
Francis married 2ndly, at St Matthew Friday Street, London, 17 Dec 1606, Alice CALTON, widow of John JAMES of London, and of William MARSHAM of Essex; she probably died in 1612.
Francis & Elizabeth had issue:
     a. Barbara CASTILLION, born Apeldorcombe, Isle of Wight, 14 Sep 1597; married at Spene Church, 4 May 1625, Anthony SPIER of Holcombe Grange, Oxfordshire; he died in 1644; issue 3 daughters:
          i. Margaret SPIER, the wife of William SELLON.
          ii. Barbara SPIER.
          iii. Mary SPIER, baptised at Spene Church, 20 Jun 1636.
     b. Elizabeth CASTILLION, baptised at Spene Church, 28 Aug 1602; married at Spene Church, 10 Sep 1635, Nicholas LAMY, a French Physician, of Basingstoke; issue 2 daughters:

          i. Elizabeth LAMY, baptised at Buxted, Sussex, 8 Aug 1641.
          ii. Joan LAMY, baptised at Buxted, Sussex, 14 Jan 1643.
     c. Thomas CASTILLION, baptised at Spene Church, 29 Dec 1603, the day after his mother's death; adm Middle Temple, 1623; of Benham Valence; will dated Feb 1654, proved P.C.C., Apr 1656; married 10 Jul 1632, Elizabeth NELSON (daughter of Thomas NELSON of Chaddlesworth, Berkshire, by Mary DUCKETT); she was still living in Jul 1664; issue:

          i. Francis CASTILLION, baptised at Spene, 28 Aug 1633; Rector of Welton-le-Wold, Lincolnshire; married 1656, Margaret BARKER, with issue.
          ii. Thomas CASTILLION, baptised at Chaddlesworth, 24 or 26 Aug 1635, living 1664.
          iii. Humphrey CASTILLION, baptised at Chaddlesworth, 1 Nov 1637; mentioned his brother John's will, Jul 1664; Citizen & Apothecary of London, will dated Sep 1664 & proved May 1669.
          iv. Peter CASTILLION, baptised at Chaddlesworth, 17 Feb 1638-39; Vicar of Dinton, Wiltshire; named in his brother John's will, Jul 1664; he married Alice, with issue; she may have been the Mrs Alice CASTILLION buried at the Parish Church of St Andrew, Cobham, Surrey, on 29 Jan 1708-09, "...the mother of John CLARK's wife, at the George Inn" and at whose funeral was delivered a sermon.
          v. John CASTILLION, baptised at Chaddlesworth, 14 Mar 1640-41; Merchant of London, when he made his will, dated 11 Jul 1664, mentioning his mother Elizabeth, and brothers Humphrey, Peter, Thomas, Valentine and Richard.
          vi. Valentine CASTILLION, baptised at Chaddlesworth, 19 Jul 1646; mentioned in his brother John's will, Jul 1664; Citizen & Grocer of London; living 1679.
          vii. Mary CASTILLION, baptised at Chaddlesworth, 27 Dec 1648; married in London, 26 Feb 1673, Miles Arnold BLACK, with issue.
          viii. Richard CASTILLION, baptised at Chaddlesworth, 28 Feb 1651; mentioned in his brother John's will, Jul 1664; Citizen & Distiller of London, will dated Jun 1679, proved Jul 1679.

2. Katherina CASTELION, baptised at St Martin-in-the-Fields, 2 Jan 1563; buried at St Margaret's Westminster, 10 Apr 1581.

3. Valentini CASTILION, baptised at St Margaret's, Westminster, 17 Feb 1565; admitted to Magdalen College, Oxon, Nov 1581; admitted to the Middle Temple, Oct 1583; of Godalming, Surrey; he & his wife Mary levied, in 1627, "...a fine of the Godalming Rectory and a large acreage of land, &c, in Godalming, Guildford & Witley, and the tithes of corn, &c, in the parish of Gdalming, to Lawrence HYDE, Esq, & others, presumably as trustees, for 60 years from the previous Lady Day" [Surrey Archaeological Collection, Vol. XXII, 1909, "The Parsonage or Rectory Manor of Godalming," by P. WOODS, p.121]; his will dated 16 Sep 1640; buried at the Parish church of Sts Peter & Paul, Godalming, 3 Jul 1641; will proved Archdeaconry Court of Surrey, 3 Nov 1641; married 1stly, Miss CALTON, 2ndly, 30 Nov 1607, Eleanor PYATT, & 3rdly Mary, his widow; probably her will, dated 24 Jul 1649, proved P.C.C., 13 Feb 1649-50.

4. Elyzabethe CASTILION, baptised at St Margaret's, 5 Mar 1566; probably died an infant.

5. Elizabethe CASTILION, baptised at St Margaret's, 7 Mar 1567; married 30 Nov 1587, Peter LEIGH of High Leigh, West Hall, Cheshire (son of Richard LEIGH by his 1st wife Clemence HOLCROFT); with issue 3 sons & 12 daughters, including:
     a. Richard LEIGH, died young.
     b. Peter LEIGH, born 5 Dec 1594, 2nd son; died 1657; married 8 Sep 1614, Mary TIPPING, with issue:
          i. Peter LEIGH, b 30 Apr 1615, died unm.
          ii. Richard LEIGH, died 12 Aug 1670, s.p.
          iii. Thomas LEIGH, of West Hall, High Leigh, buried 22 Jun 1767; married 1660, Mary AUSTIN.
          iv. Samuel LEIGH.
          v. Edmund LEIGH.
          vi. William LEIGH.
          vii. James LEIGH.
          viii; Elizabeth LEIGH.
     c. Anne (II) LEIGH, born ca 1606; married Thomas COOPER of Ewborne.
     d. Mary LEIGH.
     d. Elizabeth (II) LEIGH, born ca 1612; married Rev Nathaniel LANCASTER, Rector of Tarperley, Cheshire; he died 9 Jan 1661; issue.
     e. Frances LEIGH, born ca 1614; married William EDWARDS of Chester.
     f . Christian LEIGH; married Thomas BATE, M.D.

6. Anne CASTILION, bt St Margaret's, 11 May 1568; married Robert HYDE (died 1642 - uncle of the 1st Earl of Clarendon, father-in-law of King James II & VII), of West Hatch, Tisbury, Wiltshire, with issue 6 sons & 4 daurs, including:
     a. Robert HYDE, eldest son.
     b. Lawrence HYDE, 2nd son.
     c. Henry HYDE, 3rd son.
     d. Hamlet HYDE, 4th son.
     e. Valentine HYDE.
     f. Margaret HYDE.
     g. Ann HYDE.
     h Elizabeth HYDE, bapt Salisbury Cathedral, 8 Jun 1595.


7. Peter CASTYLYON, baptised at St Margaret's, 25 Nov 1569; a Captain in Queen Elizabeth's Army in Ireland, & possibly also in the service of Sir William FITZWILLIAM, Lord Deputy of Ireland; probably died at Moyry Pass, Ireland's "Gap of the North," 5 Oct 1600; married ca 1595, Thomasine PEYTON, daur of Christopher PEYTON (died Dublin, 1612), Auditor in Ireland, by his 1st wife Anne PALMER; issue:
     a. Peyton CASTILLION, born ca mid-late 1590s; went on an embassy to Venice, 1618, headed by his relation Sir, Henry PEYTON, and carried with him a letter of introduction from his uncle Sir Francis CASTILLION, dated at Whitehall, 23 Apr 1618, addressed to their relation Comte Baldassar CASTIGLIONE of Mantua, & Peyton probably visited him at Casatico to deliver it; he married at Bayford, Hertfordshire, 2 Sep 1639, Elizabeth GARLINGTON; she was buried at St Martin's, Ludgate, City of London, 13 Oct 1649; he evidently married again; his will, dated 2 Feb 1653, mentioned his "...loving wife" Alice, to whom he bequeathed "...all my right and interest in one Annuity or yearly rent of 40 pounds ...arising out of the rectory or parsonage of Godalming in the County of Surrey, whereof I am now possessed and doe enjoy by virtue of a feeoffment given and granted by my grandfather John Baptista CASTILLION unto my father Peter CASTILLION his sonne upon his marriage with Thomazin...[possible line omitted from the will copy on the Probate grant] PEYTON Auditor generall for Ireland, as well for their present subsistence, & for her jointure, and to the issue of their two bodies and their wives and children in the same manner, by the power of which feooffment my mother [did] enjoy the estate between 50 and 60 years after my ffather's death..."
      b. Catherine CASTILLION, the wife of Sir William GILBERT of Kilminchey, Queen's Co, Ireland.


[The old Abbey burial ground on Faughart Hill, on the side of which MOUNTJOY's army camped in Sep-Oct 1600; almost certainly where Capt Peter CASTILLION would have been buried if he died there on 5 Oct.]
Peter's widow Thomasin married 2ndly, ca 1603, Sir Robert PIGOTT of Dysart, Queen's County (widower of Anne ST LEGER, who died Apr 1599 - see his separate blog), by which 2nd marriage they both added further issue to their families. On the evidence of her son Peyton CASTILLION's will, she survived her 1st husband by 50 to 60 years, indicating that she died sometime during the 1650s.
Catherine GILBERT's daur Anne GILBERT became the wife of Sir Robert's grandson & heir apparent, Robert PIGOTT (killed at Fort Maryborough, Sep 1646, the eldest son of Sir Robert's heir John PIGOTT of Dysart, by Martha COLCLOUGH - see his separate blog), & by him ancestor of the continuing line of PIGOTTs of Dysart, including Captain John PIGOTT of Antigua, Dublin & Stradbally (see his separate blog).

8. Walter Baptyste CASTILYON, baptised at St Margaret's, 24 Dec 1570; slain in Ireland, probably before 1597, in the service of Sir Richard BINGHAM.

9. Douglasse CASTILION, baptised at St Margaret's, 3 Jun 1573; M.A. Oxon, 1599; Fellow of Magdalen College; Rector of Stratford Tony, Wiltshire, 1619; died 18 Jan 1659; married at Salisbury Cathedral, 17 Apr 1611, Margaret BOWER, with issue 6 sons & 4 daughters, including:
     a. Richard CASTILLION, baptised at Stratford Toney, 27 Dec 1613; at Godalming, Surrey, 1697; married at St Martin-in-the-Fields, London, 16 Nov 1635, Katherine SPEIR; issue:
          i. Douglas CASTILLION, baptised London, 1 Sep 1636; probably buried at Sts Peter & Paul, Godalming, 19 May 1707; married with issue.
          ii. Katherine CASTILLION, baptised at Newington, Surrey, 18 Jun 1637; possibly the wife of Nicholas WILKINS.
          iii. Richard CASTILLION, baptised at Godalming, 30 Jun 1642.
          iv. Margaret CASTILLION, baptised at Godalming, 17 Nov 1647.
          v. Rodolph CASTILLION, baptised at Godalming, 29 Nov 1648; married Frances, with issue.
          vi. Elizabeth CASTILLION, baptised at Godalming, 29 Jun 1651; probably married at Godalming, 14 Feb 1675, John ELINGE.
          vii. John CASTILLION, baptised at Godalming, 27 Apr 1657.
     b. John CASTILLION, born ca 1614; Christ Church College, Oxon; D.D., 1660; Dean of Rochester, 15 Nov 1676; died at Canterbury, 21 Oct 1688, & buried in Canterbury Cathedral (lower South Cross, with M.I.); married at St Mary Savoy, London, 27 Nov 1666, Margaret DIGGES; she died at Canterbury, 21 Jul 1716, & buried with her husband, aged 80; issue:
          i. Mary CASTILLION, baptised at Canterbury Cathedral, 16 Sep 1669.
          ii. Thomas CASTILLION, baptised at Canterbury Cathedral, 2 Nov 1671.
     c. Anne CASTILLION; married at Salisbury St Thomas, 6 May 1652, Edward DRAKE of Colyton, Devonshire; issue:
          i. Anne DRAKE, born 20 Mar 1654, & baptised at Bletchingly, Surrey, 12 Mar 1655.

10. Barbara CASTILION, baptised at St Margaret's, 16 Sep 1574; died 24 Aug 1641, & was buried in Salisbury Cathedral; she married at Wiltshire, 7 Jun 1590, Laurence HYDE of Heale House, near Salisbury, Councillor, Middle Temple (& a brother of Robert HYDE, his wife's brother-in-law); he died at Salisbury, 26 Jan 1641[?-42]; issue 17 children, including:
     a. Laurence HYDE., born at Salisbury, 10 Nov 1593; Magdalen College, Oxon, B.A. 1612; M.P. for Hindon, 1624, 1628; inherited Heale from his father, 1642; died 3 Dec 1643; married 1stly, 1 Dec 1619, Amphillis TICHBORNE; she died 24 Feb 1632; issue:
          i. Robert HYDE; died before reaching his majority, whereupon Heale went to his uncle Robert HYDE.
          ii. Amphillis HYDE; married Thomas CHAFIN, M.P.
          iii. Helen HYDE; married Sir John LOWE, M.P.
Laurence married 2ndly, at Abbots Ann, Hampshire, 24 Apr 1640, Katherine HYDE, daughter of Thomas HYDE; she died in 1661.
     b. Robert HYDE, born at Salisbury, 24 Feb 1595; called to the Bar, Middle Temple, Feb 1617; Recorder of Salisbury, 1638; Sarjeant-at-Law, May 1640; M.P. for Salisbury in the long Parliament; inherited Heale from his nephew; joined King Charles at Oxford, & was deprived of his seat in Parliament, & of his recordership; restored by Charles II; Chief Justice of the King's Bench, Oct 1663; died 2 Aug 1665; married Mary BABER, daughter of Francis BABER of Chew Magna; s.p.
     c. William HYDE, born at Salisbury, 17 Jan 1596; died 24 Mar 1630.
     d. Alexander HYDE, born at Salisbury, 30 Apr 1598; New College, Oxon; D.C.L., 1632; Rector of Wylye, Wiltshire, 1634; Sub-dean of Salisbury, 1637; a staunch Loyalist, & was deprived of his livings by Parliament under the Commonwealth; restored by Charles II; Dean of Winchester, 1660; Bishop of Salisbury, Dec 1665; died in London, 22 Aug 1667; married Mary TOUNSON; with issue:
          i.
Laurence HYDE, born at Wylye, Wiltshire, 12 Oct 1641.
          ii.
Margaret HYDE, born at Wylye, 26 May 1649.
          ii.
Robert HYDE, born at Wylye, 10 Oct 1650.
          iii.
Barbara HYDE, born at Wylye, 20 Nov 1651.
          iv.
Anne HYDE.
          v.
Mary HYDE.
     e. Celina HYDE., born at Salisbury, 1599; died 1599.
     f. Barbara HYDE, born Salisbury, 1603; died 1608.
     g. Margaret HYDE, born Salisbury, 1605.
     h. Henry HYDE, born at Salisbury, 12 May 1606; a Royalist Merchant & Consul to Turkey; selected by Charles in exile as his envoy to Turkey, but was arrested under pressure from the Parliamentarian Ambassador there, & sent back to England, where he was tried on a charge of treason; executed at Cornhill, London, on 4 Mar 1650.
     j. Edward HYDE, born at Salisbury, 16 May 1607; D.D.; Rector of Brightwell, Berkshire; died 20 Oct 1661; married Anne LAMBERT; issue:
          i. Margaret HYDE; married William HEARST.
          ii. Ann HYDE; married 11 Jul 1661, Richard COLMAN (born ca 1633, son of Sir Edward COLMAN of Brent Eleigh Hall, Suffolk, by his wife Dionise HALE); Trinity College, Cantab, 1648; Lincoln's Inn, 1650; called to the Bar, 1657; he was M.P. for Salisbury, 1665-1672; he died 13 Oct 1672, aged 40, & was buried at Brent Eleigh; issue - 4 sons & 1 daughter.
     k. Hamlett HYDE, born at Salisbury, 1610.

     l. Nicholas HYDE, born Salisbury, 20 Apr 1611.
     m. Frederick HYDE, born at Salisbury, 20 Jul 1614; died 1677
     n. James HYDE, born at Salisbury, 15 May 1617; died 7 May 1681.
     p. Charles HYDE, born at Salisbury, 24 Apr 1619; died 1619.

11. Selina CASTILION, baptised at St Margaret's, 29 Jan 1576; married Robert CHENEY of West Woodhey, Berkshire (son of Thomas CHENEY of Woodhey, Berkshire, by his 2nd wife Ann SCOTT of Mote, County Sussex); they had issue (as named in the 1632  "Visitations of Berkshire"):
     a. Henry CHENEY.
     b. John CHENEY.
     c. Barbara CHENEY.
     d. Mary CHENEY.

12. Henry Baptiste CASTILION, baptised at St Margaret's, 25 Jan 1580; married Margaret CASTILLION, with issue 3 sons & 1 daughter.

GIOVANNI'S DEATH & BURIAL.

John Baptist CASTILLION died 12 Feb 1597-98, probably in London, & was buried 17 Mar inside the Parish Church of St Mary, Spene, near Newbury, Berkshire.
Burial was attended by his son & heir Francis CASTILLION as chief mourner; sons Valentine & Douglas (who bore the penant) CASTILLION & John LEIGH as assistant mourners; Dr HARDING the preacher; William CAMDEN, Clarenceaux, bearing the Coat-of-Arms; & Samuel THOMPSON, Portcullis, bearing the Helmet & Crest.
He was laid to rest in the family aisle, under an ornate altar tomb in the Italianate style of architecture, on which still lies his recumbent life-sized effigy, represented in armour, with a vest of chain mail under, hands pressed together in devotional attitude, his head resting on his helmet, ornamented with medallions bearing the Rose en Soleil, & the feet on his mutilated crest - A salamander's head Vert, issuing from flames & breathing flames, all Proper.


On the ledge of the tomb is inscribed -"Hic jacet Jo Baptist CASTILLION Armiger Quondam Dominus de Benham in Comitatu Berk Qui obiit Xii Febr A Dni 1597." Around the side of the tomb are the family Coats-of-Arms & impalements of CASTIGLIONE:CAMPAGNI & their issue.


No will for Giovanni has yet been located in English records.


Giovanni's ornate tomb has since been relocated, and now stands adjacent to the south wall of the 1859 enlargement of the original church (see photo above), which was built annexed to the southern side; this area has now been set apart for use as a meeting & small concert area; the now smaller congregation being catered for back in the original part of the church, due east of the spire.


[Image courtesy of Peter ORR & the www.achurchnearyou.com web-site.]


The full version of Sir Francis CASTILLION's proposed epitaph, written by another hand, is as follows:
"In this monument resteth Baptist CASTILLION, Esquier, who was in the Warres at Landerse; then served Henry 8, at Bullen, Captayne of Foote. Being there recommended by some about the King, was sent over with letters unto the Private Counsail in England; to preferre him unto the Lady Elizabeth's Grace, daughter unto King Henry the 8th, chiefly to read the Italian, being then 13 years of age.
"But in the first of Queene Marie, for trusty service then done by him, touching her Grace's safety, then a prisoner, he was committed close Prisoner to the Tower of London. And being twice out of Prison a few weeks, the Lady Elizabeth writ letters secretly unto him, all of her owne hand; to give unto the French Ambassador and King Phillip's Confessor at Whitehall; with other her letters, late in the night, about her Grace's troubles, whereof he was strictly examined in the Tower, by Bishop GARDENER, then Lord Chancellor; suffered on the Racke to confess his trust therein, being Lame thereof; but would make no confession, whereby the Lady Elizabeth may come in any danger; being wrongfully accused about WYATT's Rebellion, as the Chronicles maketh mention!
"But Queen Marie being dead and the Lady Elizabeth coming to the Crowne; he was presently sent for out of the Tower of London, being then a Prisoner, and came to Court, then at Whitehall; where he waws sworn of her Majesty's Private Chamber; and gave him the Manor of Benham Valence in the county of Berks, and many other great gifts; sufficient to beare the honour of a Baron, if he had made the right use of these Princely gifts.
"He served her Majesty over 40 years, in her private Chamber, and in very great favour, especially for his great and trusty service, before mentioned. And being her Grace's servant, and in those dangerous times, would have stisfied himself, than have suffered so noble a Princess so wrongfully to be accused, and thereby to be in great danger for her life.
"But it was very true, that her Majesty, after she came to the Crowne, was no way desirous to have things mentioned, or divulged by him; whereby must be plainly discovered, how the King Philip, did greatly favour her cause; being wrongfully imprisoned; and also the French King's Ambassador, secretly sent with her Grace's letters, about her troubles, as before is specified.
"He was born in Italie, in the Dukedom of Mantua; descended of that noble family, the Count of CASTILLION. This was his most worthy life. He lived to the age of 82 years; and lieth here, under this monumnet; and was made by his eldest sonne Sir Francis CASTILLION, Knt.
"This inscription was dated this 24th of September, 1631."
[Francis CASTILLION, his Letterbook - Osborne Shelves, Beinecke Rare Book & MS Library, Yale University.]


The epitaph was never posted on his tomb.
___________________________________________________________________

CASTIGLIONE ORIGINS IN ITALY - OLONA IN VARESE, LOMBARDIA.

Giovanni's ancestral origins take him back to the Holy Roman Emperor Charlemagne (742-814), whose gtx4-grandson was Corrado (or Conrad), the son of Berenguar II (joint King of Italy, 950-961) by his wife Willa (daur of Boso, Marchese di Toscana & Count of Arles).
Corrado was the 1st Lord of Castiglione, and established his seat at Olona, ca 1000; this fortified dwelling overlooked the Olona River, about 18 km S.S.W of Como, and just to the south of the present town of Castiglione Olona.
The estate was destoyed by Ottone VISCONTI in 1280, when Corrado's gtx4 grandson Guido (II) was in occupation, his father Corrado (II) having died in that same year.

It was not rebuilt again until the early 1400s, by Cristoforo CASTIGLIONE (1345-1425).


[The CASTIGLIONE estate at Olona, front or eastern elevation, looking S.W. Photo taken in 2002.]



[Front entrance to the Olona Estate, in the centre of the eastern facade.]
The site is still occupied by a stately dwelling, but which probably dates from the early 16th century, rather than being the 1430 reconstruction, although some original work may exist behind the facade.

[Image courtesy of the www.mondimedieval.net web-site.]

[Palazzo Branda CASTIGLIONI in Castiglione-Olona.
Image courtesy of the www.comune.castiglione-olona.va.it web-site.]

CASATICO, NEAR MANTOVA, LOMBARDIA.

Cristoforo CASTIGLIONE was a renowned lawyer in Milano & Parma; he married Antonia di BAGGI, & by her had a son Baldassar CASTIGLIONE, born 14 Jan 1414, & died in 1478, having married Pollisena LISCA, and by her dowry purchased an extensive estate at Casatico, about 19 km due west of Mantua, where he constructed another stately CASTIGLIONE mansion, most of which still exists today.


[A view of the south side of the CASTIGLIONE estate at Casatico, looking towards the N.E. Photo taken in 2002.]



[Detail above the front entrance to the Casatico Estate, in the the western facade.]



[Four studies of Casatico, by OSOLEMIO (top 2), Massimo GHIRARDI & Roberto TOMEO.
Images courtesy of Google Earth, I.D. #s 1554265, 15545168, 23351796 & 42417485.]


GASSINO, NEAR TORINO, PIEMONTE.

Baldassar & Polissena had a younger son Baldassare (II) CASTIGLIONE, who was father, by his wife Katherina (daur of the Marchese di Malaspina) of Piero CASTIGLIONE, a Captain in the Army of Maximillian, Holy Roman Emperor, & who established himself at Castiglione Alto, near Gassino, in Piemonte, where our Giovanni Battista was probably born, ca 1516.


[Part of an "original" fortification remaining below the modern mansion, rebuilt on the Castiglione Alto site, overlooking the Po River Valley, just east of Gassino. Photo taken 2002.]



[Detail of Castiglione Alto, showing terra-cotta Coat-of-Arms inset into "renovated" masonry, possibly original, now housing a "modern" garage under the new mansion above.]

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Giovanni was my gtx10 grandfather.

4 comments:

vegas angel said...
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ChristineNJ2008 said...
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Matt Cotton said...

Giovanni is also my 10th Great Grandfather!
Best Regards,
Michael Cotton
Sparta, NJ

Anonymous said...

Very informative notes for historians - useful to have all this research collected together in one place

Peter, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia