And PETRINA has also noted "Elizabeth's inclination for language learning, and her proficiency in Italian..."
She further noted that:
"The teachings established by her earlier tutors... had occasion to burgeon under the guidance of her Italian teachers. Of these, the most famous is doubtlessly Giovanni Battista CASTIGLIONE, who had fought in Henry VIII's Army in France in 1544, and soon acquired a position at Court..."
"Whether or not CASTIGLIONE was Elizabeth's only teacher of Italian, he contributed significantly to her love for Italian language and culture, not only as a teacher, but also as part of a network of Italian intellectuals living and working in London..."
"Both CASTIGLIONE and Katherine ASHLEY were briefly imprisoned in 1555 and 1556, upon suspicion of circulating seditious pamphlets against the monarch (Mary) and, implicitly, in support of Elizabeth. As Elizabeth was then the constant object of suspicion, she might have felt a special closeness with her governess and her teacher of Italian, who ran risks in her support..."
However, after noting other Italians who were in contact with Elizabeth in later years, including one of her physicians, PETRINA cautioned that:
"It would therefore be limiting to suppose Elizabeth's proficiency in Italian to be simply the result of the influence of one man, however talented."
[Alessandra PETRINA, "Elizabeth Learning and Using Italian" - a chapter in "Elizabeth I's Foreign Correspondence: Letters, Rhetoric and Politics," edited by Carlo BAJETTA, Guillaume COATALEN and Jonathan GIBSON, published by Palgrave and MacMillan, 2014, at page 107-9.]
But art historian Peter Lawrence BAKER, of Canada, suggests that his father was not named CASTIGLIONE, and may instead have been a Moorish artist from Firenze - and that his mother may have been "...a woman of enormous wealth and power" by whom Giovanni, although probably illegitimate, was nevertheless "...of very noble birth."
It appears that some evidence may exist to suggest that this woman could have been Margaret (1480-1530), daughter of Maximilian, the Holy Roman Emperor, by his wife Mary of Burgundy (and so a sister of Philip the Handsome of Castile), and the widow firstly of John, Prince of Asturias (married in 1497), then secondly of Philibert II, Duke of Savoy (married in 1501); by which marriages she was also known as the Archduchess of Austria, the Dowager Duchess of Savoy; and was the ruler of the Hapsburg Netherlands (1507-1515 and 1519 till death).
Interestingly, Baldassare CASTIGLIONE did dedicate his book, "Il Libro del Courtigiano," to Margaret of Austria.
But I do not hold with BAKER's hypothesis.
At the very least, if there had been a hint scandal involving Margaret of Austria and an "unplanned" pregnancy, and if CASTIGLIONE had shown even the slightest indications of a Moorish descent, this would surely have been the subject of gossip and hearsay, and mentioned in Ambassador's letters, during both of their lifetimes. Evidence of which has ever surfaced.
On the other hand, if there is any hint that Baldassar CASTIGLIONE may have sired an illegitimate son...?
"... will not yet remove to Ashridge."
Alison WEIR ["Children of England: The Heirs of King Henry VIII," Jonathan Cape, London, 1996] wrote that CASTIGLIONE had been imprisoned in 1554 on suspicion of having distributed subversive literature, although she may have confused the cause with another charge to follow about a year later.
Giovanni was several times incorrectly referred to in State Paper MSs as Giovanni BATTISTA, "Castilian."
However, BOLLAND went on to say that CASTILLION was "...imprisoned yet again in 1556 after the circulation of an anti-catholic tract was traced to Elizabeth's household, and was not released until Elizabeth's accession" - which elongated period of incarceration seems unlikely, given the following event.
William TIGHE gives a clearer picture of these numbers in his contribution to the book "The Elizabethan World," edited by Susan DORAN and Norman SMITH, and published by Routledge, London and New York, 2011. By abstracting details from Cofferer's Accounts (for fees or stipends paid) and Livery Clothing Grants, TIGHE found [Chapter 5, page 81] the following succession of Grooms of the Privy Chamber, originally numbering just four:
1. Thomas ASTLEY - 1558, until his death in August 1595.
2. Henry SECKFORD - 1558, until the end of the reign. Also Keeper of the Privy Purse from 1569.
3. John Baptist CASTILLION - 1558, until his death in February 1598.
4. Thomas COMMAUNDER - 1558, until his death in January 1559.
5. John TAMWORTH - 1559 (replacing COMMAUNDER), until his death in April 1569.
6. Thomas LITCHFIELD, a lutenist - March 1559, until his death in 1586.
7. Edward CAREY - 1562, until the end of the reign.
8. Henry MIDDLEMORE - 1569 (replacing TAMWORTH) with livery only (until 1593).
9. Thomas KNYVETT - 1570, until the end of the reign.
10. Thomas GORGES - 1571, until the end of the reign.
11. William KILLIGREW - 1574 (livery only) and 1578 (fees), until the end of the reign.
12. Ferdinando RICHARDSON alias HEYBORNE - 1587 (replacing Thomas LITCHFIELD as "musician in residence"), until the end of the reign.
13. Edward DARCY - 1581 (livery only) and 1595 (fees - probably in the room of his father-in-law Thomas ASTLEY), until the end of the reign.
14. Edward DENNY - 1582 (livery only), until his death in 1600.
15. Michael STANHOPE - 1586 (livery only) and 1598 (fees).
There are two other lists which show some variations in the order of the early appointments, both of which appear in "Titled Elizabethans; A Directory of Elizabethan Court, State and Church Officers, 1558-1603," by Arthur F. KINNEY (1973 edition) and Jane A. LAWSON (editor, 2014 reprint), published by Palgrave MacMillan. The first is is a list of the five Grooms who were in attendance at Elizabeth's coronation on 15 January 1559:
1. Thomas ASTLEY.
2. John Baptist CASTILION.
3. Thomas LICHFIELD.
4. Henry SECKFORD.
5. John TAMWORTH.
The second is their general listing of the Grooms of the Privy Chamber, the first six of which are as follows (after which their list matches TIGHE's list in DORAN and SMITH):
1. George BRIDGEMAN, ca 1553 - 1580. [He was elsewhere listed as Keeper of Westminster Palace, 1550's to 1580, so perhaps included here in error?]
2. Thomas ASTLEY, 1558 - 1596.
3. John Baptist CASTILION, 1558 - 1597.
4. Thomas COMMANDER, 1558-1559.
5. Henry SECKFORD, 1558 - 1610.
6. Thomas LICHFIELD, 1559 - 1586.
I do not know whether these differences carry any significance.
But it does appear likely that Thomas ASTLEY would have held superiority over CASTILLION. Despite not having served in Elizabeth's court before (he absented himself in exile in Europe during Mary's Reign), ASTLEY was by now married to Katherine CHAMPERNOWNE, an old and faithful servant of Elizabeth, having been her former Governess (1536) and partly responsible for her early education - and his brother John ASTLEY was appointed Gentleman of the Privy Chamber and Master of the Jewel House in 1558. And he was English!
SOME "EXTRA-CURRICULAR" ACTIVITIES.
Charlotte BOLLAND ["Leadership and Elizabethan Culture" - see above] noted that:
"CASTIGLIONE had become friends with the engineer through his wife's family, the COMPAGNI of Florence, who had supported ACONCIO when he arrived in England in the winter of 1559."
Charlotte BOLLAND further observed that this was the first Italian book to be published in England; she also noted that CASTIGLIONE "...acted as a liaison between other Italians and the highest levels of the court" and noted that "...the historian and poet Pietro BIZZARRI described CASTIGLIONE as 'so generous and of such noble and praiseworthy manners, that for these and for his valour he deserves to be held in such high esteem by so great a queen' in his 1568 dedication to Elizabeth in his 'Historia di Pietri Bizari'..."
THE DISPUTED RECTORY MANOR OF GODALMING.
However, this arrangement may have gone back some years earlier - Percy WOODS, in his article "The Parsonage, or Rectory Manor of Godalming, etc," published in 1909 in Volume XXII of the Surrey Archaeological Collection, wrote as follows:
"...the Parsonage must have come into the possession of one John Baptist CASTILLION, who was the Lord of the Rectory Manor at least as early as 1576, and who had obtained a lease from Dean VANNES, dated 26 June 1561, for 61 years commencing at the Lady day next after the determination of the previous leases."
But there is some lack of clarity about the actual arrangements of this lease - firstly the status of the "previous leases" made it difficult to know when the term of VANNES's lease actually commenced - and it appears that there may have been two separate "ecclesiastical" dwellings in Godalming, the Rectory house and the Parsonage house, the latter probably the older of the two, and was "...a small building used sometimes as a dwelling house and sometimes to lay corn in."
It appears this latter one was the subject of CASTILLION's lease, and that he probably demolished it, and built a new one on the same site, north of the Godalming churchyard, on the southern bank of the River Wye, notwithstanding the possibility that his lease term may not then have actually commenced.
TAYLOR, a graduate of Trinity College, Cambridge (B.A. 1567, M.A. 1570), had been Master of Guildford Grammar School from 1570 until his appointment at Godalming; he died in 1619.
The erstwhile "patron" of the living, Sir William MORE, of Loseley, Surrey, was also involved in the dispute.
(John) Baptiste CASTILLION, at Westminster, wrote to MORE on 11 September 1578, the letter being abstracted by the Historical Manuscripts Commission [Appendix to the 7th Report, 1879, pages 631-2] as follows:
"He sends his signed presentation of Mr TAYLOR to the living of Godalming at MORE's request and trusts that '...by his Godly preaching he shall do the town much good.' The presentation is not to be '...prejudicial to the right I have to the house where now the vicar doth dwell' and to the tithes, which right CASTILLION means to prove at law unless the vicar demonstrates his title."
CASTILLION, at the Court, wrote again to MORE on 22 October 1578 [HMC, App, page 632b]:
"The Dean [of Salisbury] '...upon payment of his rent for Godalming' requested of CASTILLION that he should have the presentation of the vicarage. CASTILLION asked for more time to consider and now '...cannot but marvel at this kind of dealing.' CASTILLION, having presented Mr TAYLOR to the vicarage of Godalming at MORE's request, hopes that the matter can be settled so that TAYLOR is not disturbed, but his own title under his lease is acknowledged. He encloses a letter for the Dean and hopes the latter will proceed no further, but wait for CASTILLION's reply."
What appears to be a second abstraction of this letter, with slightly different emphases, but dated 24 November 1578, is held at the Surrey History Centre [TNA Ref - 6729/7/55/1], as follows:
"He has received MORE's letter, but feels he cannot yet answer it as his 'learned counsel' has left London. Understanding that Mr TAYLOR is not resident at Godalming because he lacks a house, CASTILLION will lend him part of the house he has '...of Mr SMYTH.' If TAYLOR can prove his right to the [vicarage] at law, CASTILLION will gladly give it up. He wishes to do TAYLOR no wrong, but must defend himself against the Bishop of Winchester, Dean of Salisbury and town of Godalming if attacked."
CASTILLION wrote, again from the Court, again to MORE, on 26 November 1578 [6729/7/55/2]:
"He thanks MORE for his offer to show him a rental, but does not believe that '...a rental can be a sufficient proof that the house doth appertain to your vicar.' However he will concede if the vicar can prove his title at law. He offers the vicar a part of Mr SMYTH's house so he can reside in Godalming and asks MORE to assure TAYLOR [the vicar] that CASTILLION will answer all the legal costs in the dispute with the Dean [of Salisbury] so TAYLOR can '...follow earnestly his vocation.' He chides the townspeople of Godalming for meddling in the case. He hears that Richard SMYTH is occupying the house 'for Mr GRAFTON' [the former vicar] and asks MORE to get him removed."
The dispute did not go away in a hurry - Sir William MORE, at Loseley, wrote to Charles, Lord HOWARD of Effingham, Lord Chamberlain and Privy Councillor [6729/7/73], on 2 March 1584:
"He reports that he has interviewed the present and past Churchwardens and others of Godalming who had complained to the justices of the '...lewd behaviour of Simon BOYES, Mr Baptiste's man' [Baptiste CASTILLION]. They have confirmed the accusations. Also present was the vicar Mr TAYLOR '...a very grave man, a good preacher, against whom the said Simon had very naughtily and disorderly used himself.' BOYES had confessed, '...acknowledged the words spoken by his master, but said they slipped out of his mouth unawares.' and admitted that he had falsely accused Robert BRIDGER and CHENNELL of being '...the procurer and deviser of the said information against him.' The accusers are happy to let the matter drop if BOYES does not offend again before the next Quarter Sessions..."
CASTILLION evidently retained the Advowson, which he is said to have granted to his third son Peter on the occasion of his marriage, in about 1595, to Thomasine PEYTON, probably just a year or two before his death.
It was eventually the inheritance of Giovanni's Irish-born grandson, Peyton CASTILLION (see his will abstract, below), but it appears that Thomasin exercised some rights as the widow, and her longevity may have denied Peyton access to the benefits.
However, there appears to have been some legal action ("pleadings") taken in the Court of Chancery by Sir Robert PIGOTT and his second wife Thomasin PIGOTT alias CASTILLION alias PEYTON (the plaintiffs), against her former brothers-in-law Sir Francis and Valentine CASTILLION (the defendants), pertaining to the "Rectory and Tithes of Godalming, Surrey," with a date range of 1603-25 [TNA Ref - C 2/Jas1/P5/17].
A copy of this archived document (held in the Surrey History centre) has been requested from The National Archives, and is eagerly awaited.
And it may help to explain how Henry CASTILLION, yet another of Giovanni's sons, made mention, in his will (proved P.C.C., 19 November 1646), of "...my annuity of £20 by the year to be paid out of the Parsonage of Godalming" - perhaps the feeoffment by Giovanni was to be shared by Peter with one or more of his brothers.
HIS FINAL YEARS.
On 15 May 1583, John Baptist CASTILLION Esq, and his wife Margaret, "...widow of Lazarus ALLEN," were involved in a legal disputation against Sir Christopher ALLEN and Roger GRAVES, "... concerning an annuity of £20 out of the estates in Lincs, Notts, Yorks, Kent and Herefordshire, of Sir John ALLEN, late Alderman of London."
A list of women who held positions in Queen Elizabeth's Court has been compiled by Jane A. LAWSON in her 2014 updated edition of Arthur F. KINNEY's 1973 book "Titled Elizabethans; A Directory of Elizabethan Court, State and Church Officers, 1558-1603," and published by Palgrave McMillan.
In her listing of Gentlewomen of the Bedchamber, we find, as the thirteenth entry:
"1558 - ca 1588. Margaret COMPAGNI, Mrs BAPTIST, m. John Baptist CASTILION."
I do not yet know whether this is the form in which her entry appears in either the Cofferer's Accounts or the Livery Clothing Grants (or other unidentified source), or whether Jane LAWSON has inserted additional details from other sources, as her prefatory notes suggest. In November 1558, Margaret was already Mrs CASTILION, but if she appears in the original lists under her maiden surname of COMPAGNI, it remains a possibility that she had commenced in Elizabeth's service before Elizabeth became Queen, and before Margaret had married Lazarus ALLEN. This possibility provides another way in which she met her second husband; and it also opens up speculation about the identity of her mother - it would suggest an outside chance that she was of gentle birth, rather than being one of Bartolomeo COMPAGNI's domestic servants.
However, as Margaret is not named in the list of Women of the Bedchamber who were in attendance at Elizabeth's coronation in January 1559, it is evident that she had probably not held any previous position in Elizabeth's household. Unless she was there as the wife of one of the Grooms?
Further down, on page 38, we find another list of the Mother of the Maids, with the following introduction:
"This post supervised the Maids of Honour. The Mother of the maids was usually a widow or a mature married woman..."
Sixth in the list was an entry identical to the above, but with different dates:
"1584 -1588. Margaret COMPAGNI, Mrs BAPTIST, m. John Baptist CASTILION."
i. Margaret SPIER, the wife of William SELLON.
ii. Barbara SPIER.
iii. Mary SPIER, baptised at Spene Church, 20 June 1636.
b. Elizabeth CASTILLION, baptised at Spene Church, 28 August 1602; married at Spene Church, 10 September 1635, Nicholas LAMY, a French Physician, of Basingstoke; issue 2 daughters:
i. Elizabeth LAMY, baptised at Buxted, Sussex, 8 August 1641.
ii. Joan LAMY, baptised at Buxted, Sussex, 14 January 1643.
c. Thomas CASTILLION, baptised at Spene Church, 29 December 1603, the day after his mother's death; admitted Middle Temple, 1623; of Benham Valence; will dated February 1654, proved P.C.C., April 1656; married 10 July 1632, Elizabeth NELSON (daughter of Thomas NELSON of Chaddlesworth, Berkshire, by Mary DUCKETT); she was still living in July 1664; issue:
i. Francis CASTILLION, baptised at Spene, 28 August 1633; Middle Temple, 3 February 1656; Rector of Welton-le-Wold, Lincolnshire, 6 June 1663; Vicar of Louth, Lincolnshire, 1666; buried at Louth, 14 March 1667-68; married at St Mary's, Speen, 17 November 1656, Margaret BARKER (daughter of Hugh BARKER, Doctor of Medicine, of Newbury, Berkshire, by Mary JONES); she died at Louth, Lincs, March 1712, aged 75; with issue - sons Thomas CASTILLION (1659-1687) and Francis CASTILLION (1665-1691), and a daughter Elizabeth CASTILLION (born at Welton-le-Wold, 1666; apprenticed in 1681 to Joseph STURT, Milliner; she married Charles HOLLOWAY, Citizen and Goldsmith of London; he died in 1700, with issue an only daughter Elizabeth HOLLOWAY surviving).
Margaret married secondly, about July 1671, Charles CRACROFT (he died at Louth, in September 1701, aged 70); with further issue.
ii. Thomas CASTILLION, baptised at Chaddlesworth, on 24 or 26 August 1635, living 1664.
iii. Humphrey CASTILLION, baptised at Chaddlesworth, on 1 November 1637; mentioned his brother John's will, July 1664; Citizen and Apothecary of London, will dated September 1664 and proved May 1669.
iv. Peter CASTILLION, baptised at Chaddlesworth, on 17 February 1638-39; Vicar of Dinton, Wiltshire; named in his brother John's will, July 1664; he married Alice, with issue; she may have been the Mrs Alice CASTILLION buried at the Parish Church of St Andrew, Cobham, Surrey, on 29 January 1708-09, "...the mother of John CLARK's wife, at the George Inn" and at whose funeral was delivered a sermon.
v. John CASTILLION, baptised at Chaddlesworth, 14 March 1640-41; Merchant of London, when he made his will, dated 11 July 1664, mentioning his mother Elizabeth, and brothers Humphrey, Peter, Thomas, Valentine and Richard.
vi. Valentine CASTILLION, baptised at Chaddlesworth, 19 July 1646; mentioned in his brother John's will, July 1664; Citizen and Grocer of London; living 1679.
vii. Mary CASTILLION, baptised at Chaddlesworth, 27 December 1648; married in London, 26 February 1673, Miles Arnold BLACK, with issue.
viii. Richard CASTILLION, baptised at Chaddlesworth, 28 February 1651; mentioned in his brother John's will, July 1664; Citizen and Distiller of London, will dated June 1679, proved July 1679.
Valentine went to Godalming, Surrey; he and his wife Mary levied, in 1627, "...a fine of the Godalming Rectory and a large acreage of land, etc, in Godalming, Guildford and Witley, and the tithes of corn, etc, in the parish of Godalming, to Lawrence HYDE, Esq, and others, presumably as trustees, for 60 years from the previous Lady Day" [Surrey Archaeological Collection, Volume XXII, 1909, "The Parsonage or Rectory Manor of Godalming," by Percy WOODS, page 121]; his will dated 16 September 1640; buried at the Parish church of Sts Peter and Paul, Godalming, 3 July 1641; will proved Archdeaconry Court of Surrey, 3 November 1641.
Valentine married firstly, Miss CALTON; he married secondly, at St Peter ad Vincula, Tower of London, on 30 November 1607, Eleanor PYATT; and he married thirdly, Mary, who survived as his widow; probably her will, dated 24 July 1649, proved P.C.C., 13 February 1649-50.
i. Peter LEIGH, b 30 April 1615, died unmarried.
ii. Richard LEIGH, died on 12 August 1670, s.p.
iii. Thomas LEIGH, of West Hall, High Leigh, buried on 22 June 1767; married in 1660, Mary AUSTIN.
iv. Samuel LEIGH.
v. Edmund LEIGH.
vi. William LEIGH.
vii. James LEIGH.
viii; Elizabeth LEIGH.
c. Anne (II) LEIGH, born about 1606; married Thomas COOPER of Ewborne.
d. Mary LEIGH.
a. Robert HYDE, eldest son.
b. Lawrence HYDE, second son.
c. Henry HYDE, third son.
d. Hamlet HYDE, fourth son.
e. Valentine HYDE.
f. Margaret HYDE.
g. Ann HYDE.
h Elizabeth HYDE, baptised at Salisbury Cathedral, 8 June 1595.
7. Peter CASTYLYON, baptised at St Margaret's on 25 November 1569; a Captain in Queen Elizabeth's Army in Ireland, and possibly also in the service of Sir William FITZWILLIAM, Lord Deputy of Ireland; probably died at Moyry Pass, Ireland's "Gap of the North," 5 October 1600; married about 1595, Thomasine PEYTON, daughter of Christopher PEYTON (died in Dublin, 1612), Auditor in Ireland, by his first wife Anne PALMER; they had issue:
a. Peyton CASTILLION, born about 1596; went on an embassy to Venice, 1618, headed by his relation Sir Henry PEYTON, and carried with him a letter of introduction from his uncle, Sir Francis CASTILLION, dated at Whitehall, 23 April 1618, addressed to their relation Comte Baldassar CASTIGLIONE of Mantua, which Peyton probably delivered to him at Casatico; Peyton madwe his will on 2 February 1653, mentioning his loving wife Alice, to whom he bequeathed "... all my right and interest in one Annuity or yearly rent of 40 pounds... arising out of the rectory or parsonage of Godalming in the County of Surrey, whereof I am now possessed and doe enjoy by virtue of a feeoffment given and granted by my grandfather John Baptista CASTILLION unto my father Peter CASTILLION his sonne upon his marriage with Thomazin... [possible line omitted from the will copy into the Probate grant] PEYTON, Auditor generall for Ireland, as well for their present subsistence, and for her jointure, and to the issue of their two bodies and their wives and children in the same manner, by the power of which feeoffment my mother [did[ enjoy the estate between 50 and 60 years after my ffather's death..."; Peyton was married firstly at Bayford, Hertfordshire, 2 September 1639, to Elizabeth GARLINGTON; she was buried at St Martin's Ludgate, 13 October 1649; Peyton was married secondly at Southampton, 12 February 1651, to Alice SOYN.
b. Catherine CASTILLION; the wife of Sir William GILBERT of Kiminchy, Queen's County.
Catherine GILBERT's daughter Anne GILBERT became the wife of Sir Robert's grandson and heir apparent, Robert PIGOTT (killed at Fort Maryborough, September 1646, the eldest son of Sir Robert's heir John PIGOTT of Dysart, by Martha COLCLOUGH - see his separate blog), and by him ancestor of the continuing line of PIGOTTs of Dysart, including Captain John PIGOTT of Antigua, Dublin and Stradbally (see his separate blog).
8. Walter Baptyste CASTILYON, baptised at St Margaret's on 24 December 1570; slain in Ireland, probably before 1597, in the service of Sir Richard BINGHAM.
9. Douglasse CASTILION, baptised at St Margaret's on 3 June 1573; M.A. Oxon, 1599; Fellow of Magdalen College; Rector of Stratford Tony, Wiltshire, 1619; died on 18 January 1659; married at Salisbury Cathedral, on 17 April 1611, Margaret BOWER, with issue six sons and four daughters, including:
a. Richard CASTILLION, baptised at Stratford Toney, 27 December 1613; at Godalming, Surrey, 1697; married at St Martin-in-the-Fields, London, 16 November 1635, Katherine SPEIR; issue:
i. Douglas CASTILLION, baptised London, 1 September 1636; probably buried at Sts Peter and Paul, Godalming, 19 May 1707; married with issue.
ii. Katherine CASTILLION, baptised at Newington, Surrey, 18 June 1637; possibly the wife of Nicholas WILKINS.
iii. Richard CASTILLION, baptised at Godalming, 30 June 1642.
iv. Margaret CASTILLION, baptised at Godalming, 17 November 1647.
v. Rodolph CASTILLION, baptised at Godalming, 29 November 1648; married Frances, with issue.
vi. Elizabeth CASTILLION, baptised at Godalming, 29 June 1651; probably married at Godalming, 14 February 1675, John ELINGE.
vii. John CASTILLION, baptised at Godalming, 27 April 1657.
b. John CASTILLION, born about 1614; Christ Church College, Oxon; D.D., 1660; Dean of Rochester, 15 November 1676; died at Canterbury, 21 October 1688, and buried in Canterbury Cathedral (lower South Cross, with M.I.); married at St Mary Savoy, London, 27 November 1666, Margaret DIGGES; she died at Canterbury, 21 July 1716, and buried with her husband, aged 80; issue:
i. Mary CASTILLION, baptised at Canterbury Cathedral, 16 September 1669.
ii. Thomas CASTILLION, baptised at Canterbury Cathedral, 2 November 1671.
c. Anne CASTILLION; married at Salisbury St Thomas, 6 May 1652, Edward DRAKE of Colyton, Devonshire; issue:
i. Anne DRAKE, born on 20 March 1654, and baptised at Bletchingly, Surrey, 12 March 1655.
10. Barbara CASTILION, baptised at St Margaret's on 16 September 1574; died on 24 August 1641, and was buried in Salisbury Cathedral; she was married at Wiltshire, on 7 June 1590, to Laurence HYDE of Heale House, near Salisbury, Councillor, Middle Temple (and a brother of Robert HYDE, his wife's brother-in-law); he died at Salisbury on 26 January 1641[?-42]; they had issue seventeen children, including:
a. Laurence HYDE, born at Salisbury on 10 November 1593; Magdalen College, Oxon, B.A. 1612; M.P. for Hindon, 1624, 1628; inherited Heale from his father, 1642; died on 3 December 1643; married firstly, on 1 December 1619, Amphillis TICHBORNE; she died on 24 February 1632; issue:
i. Robert HYDE; died before reaching his majority, whereupon Heale went to his uncle Robert HYDE.
ii. Amphillis HYDE; married Thomas CHAFIN, M.P.
iii. Helen HYDE; married Sir John LOWE, M.P.
Laurence married secondly, at Abbots Ann, Hampshire, on 24 April 1640, Katherine HYDE, daughter of Thomas HYDE; she died in 1661.
b. Robert HYDE, born at Salisbury, 24 February 1595; called to the Bar, Middle Temple, February 1617; Recorder of Salisbury, 1638; Sarjeant-at-Law, May 1640; M.P. for Salisbury in the long Parliament; inherited Heale from his nephew; joined King Charles at Oxford, and was deprived of his seat in Parliament, and of his recordership; restored by Charles II; Chief Justice of the King's Bench, October 1663; died on 2 August 1665; married Mary BABER, daughter of Francis BABER of Chew Magna; s.p.
c. William HYDE, born at Salisbury on 17 January 1596; died on 24 March 1630.
d. Alexander HYDE, born at Salisbury on 30 April 1598; New College, Oxon; D.C.L., 1632; Rector of Wylye, Wiltshire, 1634; Sub-dean of Salisbury, 1637; a staunch Loyalist, and was deprived of his livings by Parliament under the Commonwealth; restored by Charles II; Dean of Winchester, 1660; Bishop of Salisbury, December 1665; died in London on 22 August 1667; married Mary TOUNSON; with issue:
i. Laurence HYDE, born at Wylye, Wiltshire, 12 October 1641.
ii. Margaret HYDE, born at Wylye, 26 May 1649.
ii. Robert HYDE, born at Wylye, 10 October 1650.
iii. Barbara HYDE, born at Wylye, 20 November 1651.
iv. Anne HYDE.
v. Mary HYDE.
e. Celina HYDE., born at Salisbury, 1599; died in 1599.
f. Barbara HYDE, born at Salisbury, 1603; died in 1608.
g. Margaret HYDE, born at Salisbury, 1605.
h. Henry HYDE, born at Salisbury, 12 May 1606; a Royalist Merchant and Consul to Turkey; selected by Charles in exile as his envoy to Turkey, but was arrested under pressure from the Parliamentarian Ambassador there, and sent back to England, where he was tried on a charge of treason; executed at Cornhill, London, on 4 March 1650.
j. Edward HYDE, born at Salisbury, 16 May 1607; D.D.; Rector of Brightwell, Berkshire; died on 20 October 1661; married Anne LAMBERT; issue:
i. Margaret HYDE; married William HEARST.
ii. Ann HYDE; married 11 July 1661, Richard COLMAN (born about 1633, son of Sir Edward COLMAN of Brent Eleigh Hall, Suffolk, by his wife Dionise HALE); Trinity College, Cantab, 1648; Lincoln's Inn, 1650; called to the Bar, 1657; he was M.P. for Salisbury, 1665-1672; he died on 13 October 1672, aged 40, and was buried at Brent Eleigh; issue - four sons and one daughter.
k. Hamlett HYDE, born at Salisbury, 1610.
l. Nicholas HYDE, born at Salisbury, 20 April 1611.
m. Frederick HYDE, born at Salisbury, 20 July 1614; died in 1677
n. James HYDE, born at Salisbury, 15 May 1617; died on 7 May 1681.
p. Charles HYDE, born at Salisbury, 24 April 1619; died in 1619.
11. Selina CASTILION, baptised at St Margaret'son 29 January 1576; married Robert CHENEY of West Woodhey, Berkshire (son of Thomas CHENEY of Woodhey, Berkshire, by his second wife Ann SCOTT of Mote, County Sussex); they had issue (as named in the 1632 "Visitations of Berkshire"):
a. Henry CHENEY.
b. John CHENEY.
c. Barbara CHENEY.
d. Mary CHENEY.
12. Henry Baptiste CASTILION, baptised at St Margaret's on 25 January 1580; of Lindhurst, Surrey, will proved P.C.C., 19 November 1646; married Margaret CASTILLION; she survived him and proved his will as the relict; they had issue:
a. Henry CASTILLION.
b. Elizabeth CASTILLION.
d. (daughter); married POCOCKE, with issue:
i. John POCOCKE; named in his grandfather's will, 1646.
e. (daughter); perhaps Elizabeth above; married Edward BRIGHT; he witnessed his father-in-law's will, 1646.
GIOVANNI'S DEATH AND BURIAL.
John Baptist CASTILLION died on 12 February 1597-98, probably in London, and was buried 17 March inside the Parish Church of St Mary, Spene, near Newbury, Berkshire.
His burial was attended by his son and heir Francis CASTILLION as chief mourner; sons Valentine and Douglas (who bore the penant) CASTILLION and John LEIGH as assistant mourners; Dr HARDING the preacher; William CAMDEN, Clarenceaux, bearing the Coat-of-Arms; and Samuel THOMPSON, Portcullis, bearing the Helmet and Crest.
He was laid to rest in the family aisle, under an ornate altar tomb in the Italianate style of architecture, on which still lies his recumbent life-sized effigy, represented in armour, with a vest of chain mail under, hands pressed together in devotional attitude, his head resting on his helmet, ornamented with medallions bearing the Rose en Soleil, and the feet on his mutilated crest - A salamander's head Vert, issuing from flames and breathing flames, all Proper.
On the ledge of the tomb is inscribed -"Hic jacet Jo Baptist CASTILLION Armiger Quondam Dominus de Benham in Comitatu Berk Qui obiit Xii Febr A Dni 1597." Around the side of the tomb are the family Coats-of-Arms and impalements of CASTIGLIONE:CAMPAGNI and their issue.
No will for Giovanni has yet been located in English records.
Giovanni's ornate tomb has since been relocated, and now stands adjacent to the south wall of the 1859 enlargement of the original church (see photo above), which was built annexed to the southern side; this area has now been set apart for use as a meeting and small concert area; the now smaller congregation being catered for back in the original part of the church, due east of the spire.
The full version of Sir Francis CASTILLION's proposed epitaph, written by another hand, is as follows:
[Francis CASTILLION, his Letterbook - Osborne Shelves, Beinecke Rare Book and MS Library, Yale University.]
In 2016, I became aware of he existence of an Italian biography of Giovanni, written by Maria Grazia BELLORINI, entitled "Giovan Battista CASTIGLIONE consigliere di Elizabetta I," in contributi dell'instituto di filologia moderna, Serie Inglese, ed Sergio ROSSI (Milan, Vita e pensiero, 1974, 113-141).
I have not yet seen a copy of this biography. It would not surprise me if his entry in the Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani (Volume 22), attributed to Massimo FIRPO, was derived from this earlier Italian language source. This Italian language biography records that Giovanni was imprisoned in the Tower in May-June 1556, and not released until after the death of Queen Mary - which, as noted above, seems unlikely, given that he was at liberty in February 1558 when he was married in the Parish Church of St Christopher-le-Stocks. It further states that CASTIGLIONE may have gone on a diplomatic mission to Pavia in 1563 (as mentioned in a letter to Minister CECIL from an informant); and that he visited Antwerp in 1565, in connection with the supply of weapons for the English Army on behalf of the Duke of Leicester (see above).
SOME OLD CASTIGLIONE CORRESPONDENCE.
Giovanni's eldest son and heir,Sir Francis CASTILLION, kept a letter book, which is now in the holdings of the Bienecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University.
One of the letters is a copy of one written by his father Giovanni in March 1581, addressed to the Duke of Savoy, some 20 years before he was married to Margaret of Austria:
Another is purported to be a letter under the hand of Queen Elizabeth:
Another is from Francis CASTILION, dated July 1609, and addressed to his supposed relation, Count Baldassare CASTIGLIONE in Mantua, and his reply of December 1610:
My Italian is non-existent. Assistance with old handwriting and possible old Italian (Lombardy) dialect would be most welcomed.
CASTIGLIONE ORIGINS IN ITALY - OLONA IN VARESE, LOMBARDIA.
Giovanni's ancestral origins take him back to the Holy Roman Emperor Charlemagne (742-814), whose gtx4-grandson was Corrado (or Conrad), the son of Berenguar II (joint King of Italy, 950-961) by his wife Willa (daur of Boso, Marchese di Toscana and Count of Arles).
Corrado was the 1st Lord of Castiglione, and established his seat at Olona, about 1000; this fortified dwelling overlooked the Olona River, about 18 km S.S.W of Como, and just to the south of the present town of Castiglione Olona.
The estate was destoyed by Ottone VISCONTI in 1280, when Corrado's gtx4 grandson Guido (II) was in occupation, his father Corrado (II) having died in that same year.
It was not rebuilt again until the early 1400s, by Cristoforo CASTIGLIONE (1345-1425).
The site is still occupied by a stately dwelling, but which probably dates from the early 16th century, rather than being the 1430 reconstruction, although some original work may exist behind the facade.
[Image courtesy of the www.mondimedieval.net web-site.]
[Palazzo Branda CASTIGLIONI in Castiglione-Olona.
Image courtesy of the www.comune.castiglione-olona.va.it web-site.]
CASATICO, NEAR MANTOVA, LOMBARDIA.
Cristoforo CASTIGLIONE was a renowned lawyer in Milano and Parma; he married Antonia di BAGGI, and by her had a son Baldassar CASTIGLIONE, born on 14 January 1414, and died in 1478, having married Pollisena LISCA, and by her dowry purchased an extensive estate at Casatico, about 19 km due west of Mantua, where he constructed another stately CASTIGLIONE mansion, most of which still exists today.
GASSINO, NEAR TORINO, PIEMONTE.
Baldassar and Polissena had a younger son Baldassare (II) CASTIGLIONE, who was father, by his wife Katherina (daughter of the Marchese di Malaspina) of Piero CASTIGLIONE, a Captain in the Army of Maximillian, Holy Roman Emperor, and who established himself at Castiglione Alto, near Gassino, in Piemonte, where our Giovanni Battista was probably born, about 1516.